MBB1 Week 1 Part 1

Card Set Information

Author:
jknell
ID:
190448
Filename:
MBB1 Week 1 Part 1
Updated:
2012-12-21 22:56:30
Tags:
MBB1 Week Review
Folders:

Description:
MBB1 Week 1 Review
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user jknell on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Nucleus vs. Ganglion
    Nucleus: collection of nerve cell bodies in CNS

    Ganglion: collection of nerve cell bodies in PNS
  2. Types of Lesions (location)
    • 1. Focal
    • 2. Diffuse (functional systems with a selective vulnerability)
    • 3. Multifocal
  3. Lesion Time Course of Onset
    • 1. Acute: minutes - hours
    • 2. Subacute: weeks - months
    • 3. Chronic: years
  4. VITAMIN DEC
    • V: Vascular (stroke)
    • I: Infectious
    • T: Traumatic
    • A: Autoimmune
    • M: Metabolic/Toxic/Endocrine/Nutrition
    • I: Iatrogenic
    • N: Neoplastic

    • D: Degenerative
    • E: Episodic/Paroxysmal
    • C: Congenital/Developmental
  5. Types of Neurons
    • 1. Multipolar
    • 2. Bipolar
  6. Multipolar
    • -dendrites and axons
    • -Intrinsic: short axon
    • -Projection: long axon
  7. Bipolar
    -first order neurons in the sensory systems (activated by receptors, not another neuron)
  8. Dendrites
    • -extensions of the neuron cell body that:
    •       1. increase surface area
    •       2. increase synapses
    •       3. organization and heirarchy to synapses
    • -dendritic spines are dynamic --> plasticity
  9. Axonal Transport
    • 1. Fast anterograde: newly synthesized materials
    • 2. Slow anterograde: cytoskeletal elements/proteins
    • 3. Retrograde: materials for degradation or reuse
  10. Neuropil
    • -bulk of CNS gray matter
    • -filled with neuronal processes, synapses and glia
  11. Neuroglial Cells
    • 1. Astrocytes
    • 2. Oligodendrocytes
    • 3. Ependymal Cells
    • 4. Microglial Cells
  12. Astrocytes
    • -structural support
    • -repair
    • -maintain ionic environment
    • -electrical insulation of synapses
    • -prevent NT diffusion out of synapse
  13. Oligodendrocytes
    • -axon ensheathment
    • -myeling formation in CNS
  14. Ependymal Cells
    • -line ventricles: Brain-CSF barrier
    • -specialize to become CSF-secreting cells of the choroid plexus
  15. Microglial Cells
    -phagocytes
  16. Axon Ensheathment and Myelination
    • -CNS: many ensheathed, most myelinated
    • -PNS: all ensheathed, most myelinated

    ***different myelin with different antigens --> autoimmune disorders that only affect CNS or PNS
  17. Schwann Cells
    -ensheath and myelinate in the PNS
  18. Oligodendrocytes
    -ensheath and myelinate in the CNS
  19. Electrotonic Conduction (no myelin)
    • 1. RMP: K leak channels open at rest = -90mV
    •               small number of Na leak channels = -70mV
    • 2. Depolarization: if reaches threshold of -55mV opens voltage gated Na channels, depolarize to +20mV, followed by Na channel inactivation
    • 3. Repolarization: voltage gated K channels take longer to open and stay open longer leading to repolarization.

    4. Refractory Period: prevents backwards depolarization
  20. Saltatory Conduction (Myelin)
    • -increases speed of conduction
    • -saltatory conduction: jumps from node to node
  21. Conduction on a multipolar neuron
    -electrotonic conduction on: dendrites, cell body, nerve terminal

    -saltatory conduction on: axon
  22. Synaptic Transmission
    1. depolarization on nerve terminal opens voltage gated Ca channels

    2. Calcium triggers binding of NT vescicles to membrane

    3. NT binds receptors on post synaptic membrane causing an EPSP ro IPSP

    4. All EPSPs and IPSPs summate
  23. Conduction on Bipolar Neurons
    • -afferent axon: conduct APs toward cell body
    • -efferent axon: conduct APs away from cell body

    Pseudounipolar: AP propagates over the cell body
  24. Neural Coding
    presentation of sensory information in terms of spatial and temporal patterns of nerve cell activity

    labeled line code: sensory event represented by activity of a specific group of cells

    increased stimulus intensity coded by increased firing rate

    topographic maps
  25. Local Anesthetics
    -block voltage gated Na channels

    -unprotonated form diffuses through active channel into cell where it is protonated

    -protonated form binds to inactive channel

    • Effectiveness:
    • 1. decreased with acidosis (protonated form can't enter cell)
    • 2. enhanced with more membrane depolarization (more inactive channels to bind)
  26. Different Sensitivity to Local Anesthetics
    • -smaller diameter fibers are more sensititve
    • -unmyelinated fibers more sensitive
    • = pain fibers are the most sensitive

    • -duration of action determined by systemic absorption
    • -prolong duration of action with a vasoconstrictor (epi)
  27. Systemic Toxicity of Local Anesthetics
    -function of blood level

    • 1. CNS effects
    • 2. Cardiovascular depression
    • 3. Hematologic effects
    • 4. rarely hypersensitivity
  28. CNS Neurotransmitters
    • 1. DA
    • 2. NE/Epi
    • 3. 5-HT
    • 4. ACh
    • 5. GABA
    • 6. Glycine
    • 7. Glutamate
  29. Catecholamines
    • -DA, NE, Epi
    • -metabotropic (GPCR)
    • -metabolism: MAO-A, MAO-B, COMT
    • -reuptake: NET, DAT
  30. 5-HT
    • -metabotropic (GPCR)
    • -metabolised by MAO
    • -reuptake by SERT
  31. ACh
    • -metabotropic
    • -degraded by AChE
  32. Amino Acids
    -ionotropic

    • 1. Inhibitory: GAGA, glycine
    • 2. Excitatory: glutamate
  33. Noradrenergic CNS Signaling


    • From: locus ceruleus and pontine nuclei
    • To: cerebral cortex, brain and spinal cord

    Regulates: mood, arousal, food intake, body temp regulation, reward and BP
  34. Serotonergic Signaling in the CNS
    • From: median raphe
    • To: cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, cerebellum, spinal cord

    Regulates: mood, anxiety, sleep, sexual fxn, appetite, migraine
  35. Dopaminergic Signaling in CNS


    • 1. Tuberoinfundibular
    • From: arcuate nucleus (hypothalamus)
    • To: Pituitary
    • Regulates: DA inhibits prolactin release from pituitary

    • 2. Nigrostriatal
    • From: Substantia Nigra
    • To: Striatum (caudate and putamen)
    • Regulates: motor systems

    • 3a. Mesolimbic
    • From: Ventral tegmental area of midbrain
    • To: Medial limbic system
    • Regulates: emotion and cognition

    • 3b. Mesocortical
    • From: VTA of midbrain
    • To: neocortex (prefrontal cortex)
    • Regulates: emotion and cognition
  36. Dopaminergic Receptors
    • D1: excitatory
    • D2: Inhibitory

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview