ap government State and local governments chapter 4

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  1. state constitution
    the document that describes the basic policies procedures and institutions of the government of a specifc state , much as the U.S constitution does for the federal government
  2. progressive movement
    measures to destroy political machines and instead have direct participation by voters in the nomination of canidates ad the establoshement of public policies
  3. governor
    cheif elected executive in state government
  4. package or general veto
    The authority of a chief executie to void an entire bill that has been passed by legislature. this veto applies to wheather or not they have been taxing or spending components and the legislature may overide this veto usually with 2/3 majority of each chamber
  5. line -item veto
    the authority of a chief executive to delete part of a bill passed by the legislature that involves taxing or spending. the legislature may overide a veto, usually with 2/ majority of wach chamber.
  6. pardon
    the authority of a governor to cancel someones conviction of a crime by a court and to eliminate all sanction and punishments resulting from conviction
  7. commute
    the action of a governor to cancel all or part of the sentence of someone convicted of a crime while keeping the conviction on the record
  8. parole
    the authority of a governor to release a prisoner before his or her full sentence has been completed and to specify conditions that must be met as part of the release
  9. extradite
    to send someone against his or her will to another state to face criminal charges
  10. term limits
    restrictions that exist in some states about how long an individual may serve in state or local elected offices
  11. inclusion
    the prinicple that state courts will apply federal laws when those laws directly conflict with the laws of a state
  12. missouri (merit) plan
    a method of selecting judges in which a governor must appoint someone from a list provided by an independent panel judges are then kept in office if they get a majority of "yes" votes in general elections
  13. direct inititive
    a process in which voters can place a proposal on a ballot and enact it into law without involving the legislature or the governor
  14. direct (popular) referendum
    a process in which voters can veto a bill recently passed in the legislature by placing the issue on a ballot and expressing disapproval
  15. advisory referendum
    a process in which voters cast nonbinding ballots on an issue or proposal
  16. recall
    a process in which voters can petition for a vote to remove officeholders between elections
  17. Dillon's Rule
    a occur ruling that local governments do not have any inherent sovereignty but instead must be authorized by state government
  18. charter
    a document that , like a constitution , specifies that basic policies , procedures , and institution of a municipality
  19. county
    a geographic district created within a stste with a government that has general responsibilities for land welfare environment and where appropriate rural service policies
  20. municipality
    a government with general responsilibilities such as a city town or village government that is created in response to the emergence of relatively densely populated ares
  21. special
    a local government that is responsible for a particular such as k-12 education water sewerage or parks
  22. town meeting
    form of local government in which all eligible voters are invited to attend a meeting at which budgers and ordinanaces are proposed and voted on
  23. political machine
    an organization designed to solicit voters from certain neighborhoods or communities  for a paticular political party in return for services and jobs if that party wins
  24. mayor
    chief elected excutive of a city
  25. city council
    the legislature in a city government
  26. manager
    a professional executive hired by a city council or country board to manage daily operations and to recommend policy changes
  27. district based election
    election in which canidates run for an office that reprsents only the voters of a specific district within the jurisdiction
  28. at large elcetion
    election in whch canidates for office must complete throughout the jurisdiction as a whole
  29. commision
    form of local government in which several officials are elected to top positions that have both legislative and executive responsibilities
  30. public corporation (authority)
    governemnt organization established to provide a particular service or run a particular facilty that is independent of other city or state agencies and is to be operated like a business. Examples include a port of authority or  mass transit system
  31. nonpartisain
    a contest in which canidates run without a formal identification or association with a political party
  32. domestic dependant
    a type of sovereignty that makes an indian tribe in the united states outside the authority of state governments but reliant on the federal government for the definition of tribal authority 
  33. trust relationship
    the legal obligation of he united states federal governments to protect the interest of indian tribes
  34. compact
    a formal legal agreement beteween a state and tribe
  35. reservation land
    land designated in a treaty that is under the authority of an indian nation and is exempt from most state laws and taxes
  36. trust land
    land owned by an indian nation and is designated by the federal bureau of indian affairs as exempt from most state laws and taxes
  37. segregated funds
    money that comes in from a ceratain tax or fee and then is restricted to a specific use such as a gasoline tax that is used for road maintence
  38. progressive tax
    the tax level increases with the wealth or aility of an individual or bussiness to pay
  39. regressive tax
    the tax level increases as the wealth or ability of an individual or bussiness to pay decreases
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ap government State and local governments chapter 4
2012-12-22 22:14:54

vocab for chapter 4
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