AP Lang terms

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blankdr14
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AP Lang terms
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2012-12-22 14:26:22
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  1. ad hominem argument
    an argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason
  2. allegory
    using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning
  3. alliteration
    the repition of sounds
  4. allusion
    a direct or indirect reference to something that is presumably commonly known
  5. ambiguity
    the multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage
  6. analogy
    a similarity or comparison between two different things
  7. antecedent
    the word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun
  8. antithesis
    a figure of speech involving a seeming contradiction of ideas, words, clauses, or sentences within a balanced grammatical structure resulting in parallelism that emphasizes the opposition of ideas
  9. aphorism
    a terse statement of known authorship that expresses a general truth or moral principle
  10. apostrophe
    a figure of speech that directly addresses an obsent or imaginary person or personified abstraction
  11. atmosphere
    the emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described
  12. caricature
    a representation, especially pictoral or literary, in which the subject's distinctive features or pecularities are deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic or grotesque effect
  13. chiasmus
    a figure of speech based on inverted parallelism; a rhetorical figure in which two clauses are related to each other through reversal of terms- the purpose is usually to make a larger point or to provide balance or order
  14. clause
    a grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb
  15. dependent (subordinate) clause
    cannot stand alone as a sentence; must be accompanied by an independent clause
  16. colloquialism
    slang or informality in speech or writing
  17. conceit
    a fanciful expressio, usually in the form of an extended metaphor ot surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects, that displays intellectual clevernessdue to the unusual comparison being made
  18. connotation
    the nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning
  19. denotation
    the strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color
  20. didactic
    works with the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially of moral or ethical principles
  21. euphemism
    a more agreeable, less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts
  22. extended metaphor
    a metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work
  23. figurative language
    writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid
  24. figure of speech
    a device used to produce figurative language- apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonym, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement
  25. generic conventions
    traditions for each genre- essay, journalistic, autobiography, etc.
  26. genre
    the major category into which a literary work fits
  27. homily
    serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice
  28. hyperbole
    a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement
  29. imagery
    the sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, ar represent abstractions
  30. inference/infer
    to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented
  31. invective
    an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language
  32. irony
    the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant/ the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true
  33. verbal irony
    words literally state the opposite of the writer's true meaning
  34. situational irony
    events turn out opposit of what was expected
  35. dramatic irony
    facts or events are unknown to a character in a piece of fiction, but known to the audience or other characters in a book
  36. juxtaposition
    placing dissimilar items, descriptions or ideas close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrst
  37. loose sentence
    a type of sentence in which the main idea comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses
  38. metaphor
    a figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similarity
  39. metonym
    a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it
  40. narrative
    the telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events
  41. onomatopeia
    a figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words
  42. oxymoron
    a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms to suggest a paradox
  43. paradox
    a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense, but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity
  44. parallelism
    the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity
  45. parody
    a work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule
  46. pedantic
    an adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish
  47. periodic sentence
    a sentence that presents its central meaning and main clause at the end
  48. personification
    a figure of speech in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions
  49. point of view
    the perspective from which a story is told
  50. first-person narrator
    tells the story with the first-person pronoun
  51. third-person omniscient
    the narrator presents the thoughts or actions of any or all characters with godlike knowledge
  52. third-person limited-omniscient
    the narrator presents the thoughts and actions of only one character, and only the actions of all the others
  53. predicate adjectives
    a type of subject compliment in the predicate of the sentence that modifies or describes the object
  54. predicate nominative
    a second type of subject compliment that follows a linking verb and is located in the predicate of the sentence
  55. prose
    fiction and nonfiction (in all its forms)- written in ordinary language and most closely resemble everyday speech
  56. repetition
    the duplication of any element of language that links and emphasizes ideas while allowing the reader the comfort of recognizing something familiar
  57. rhetoric
    the principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively
  58. rhetorical appeal
    the persuasive device by which a writer tries to sway the audience's attention and response to any given work
  59. ethos
    demonstrates credibility and trustworthiness; emphasizes shared values between the speaker and audience
  60. logos
    logical reasoning- combining clear ideas with well-thought-out and appropriate examples and details
  61. pathos
    appeals to emotions and interests of the audience
  62. rhetorical modes
    the variety, the convention, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing
  63. exposition
    explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion
  64. argumentation
    prove the validiy of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, thoughtful discussion, and insightful argument that will thoroughly convince the reader
  65. description
    re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that being described
  66. narration
    tell a story or narrate an event or series of events
  67. rhetorical question
    a question that is asked merely for effect and does not expect a reply, the answer is assumed
  68. sarcasm
    bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something
  69. satire
    a work that targets human vices and follies, or social institutions and conventions, for reform or ridicule
  70. simile
    a comparison using "like" or "as"
  71. style
    an evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices
  72. subject compliment
    the word or clause that follows a linking verb and complements, or completes the subject of the sentence
  73. subordinate clause
    a word group containing both a subject and a verb that cannot stand alone
  74. syllogism
    a deductive system of formal logic that presents to premises (major and minor) that lead to a sound conclusion
  75. symbolism
    anything that represents or stands for something else
  76. syntax
    the way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences
  77. theme
    the central idea or message of a work
  78. thesis
    a sentence or group of sentences that directly express the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition
  79. tone
    describes the author's attitude toward his or her material, the audience, or both
  80. transition
    a word or phrase that links different ideas
  81. understatement
    the ironic minimizing of fact
  82. litotes
    a figure of speech by which an affirmation is made indirectly by denying its opposite
  83. meiosis
    a rhetorical figure by which something isreferred to in terms less important than it really deserves
  84. wit
    intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights

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