space 2

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Author:
bijaldesai
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190508
Filename:
space 2
Updated:
2013-01-10 21:42:46
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chapter 8
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  1. Electromagnetic radiation
    • Radiation consisting of electromagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light
    • e.g. such as visible light, radio waves, and X rays, gamma rays, Ultra Violet rays etc.
  2. Refracting telescope
    A telescope that uses a lens to collect the light from an object

  3. Reflecting telescopes
    A telescope that uses a mirror to collect the light from an object

  4. Satellite
    • An aritificial (human-made) object or vehicle that orbits Earth, the Moon, or other celestial bodies; also, a celestial bosy that orbits another or larger size
    • e.g. the Moon is Earth's natural satellite
  5. oribter
    Observatories that orbit other planets. 

    - They take high-resolution images that are not obtainable from Earth
  6. Solar nebula theory
    The theory that describes how stars and planets form from contracting, spinning disks of gas and dust
  7. Star
    A celestial body made of hot gases, mainly hydrogen and some helium

    e.g. The Sun
  8. nebula
    A vast cloud of gas and dust, which may be the birthplace of stars and planets
  9. Protostar
    hot, condensed object at the centre of a nebula
  10. Nuclear fusion
    the process of energy production in which hydrogen nuclei combine to form helium nuclei

    --Nuclear fusion begins when the temperature reaches 10 000 000 degrees Celsius
  11. photosphere
    The surface layer of the Sun
  12. Sunspot
    an area of strong magnetic fields on the photosphere

    -- Sun spots occur in 22-yar cycles, peaking in number at intervals of about every 11 years

  13. Solar wind
    A stream of fast- moving charged particles ejected by the Sun into the solar system
  14. Solar flare
    • -Solar flares can occur where there are complex groups of sunspots .
    • -Solar flares are an event in which magnetic fields explosively eject intense steams of charged particles(called solar wind) into space
    • -When the charged particles from the Sun collide with Earths upper atmosphere auroras can result


    •  Solar flares
  15. Importance of the Sun
  16. luminosity
    A star's total energy output per second; its power in joules per second (J/s)
  17. Absolute magnitude
    The madnitude of a star that we wouold observe if the star were placed 32.6 light-years from Earth
  18. spectroscope
    An optical instrument that produces a spectrum from a narrow beam of light, and usually projects the spectrum onto a photographic plate or a digital detector
  19. Spectral lines
    Certain specific wavelengths within a spectrum characterized by lines; spectral lines identify specific chemical elements
  20. Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram
    A graph that compares the properties of stars

  21. Main sequence
    A narrow band of stars on the H-R diagram that runs siagonally from the upper left ( bright, hot stars ) to the lower right ( dim, cool stars); about 90 percent of stars, including the Sun, are in the main sequence
  22. white dwarf
    A small, dim, hot star
  23. supernova
    A massive explosion in which the entire outer portion of a star is blown off
  24. Neutron star
    A star so dense that only neutrons can exist in the core
  25. How low-mass stars evolve
    They consume their hydrogen slowly, over a period of time. During that time time, they lose significant mass, essentially evaportating. In the end all that remains of them is a very faint white dwarf. 
  26. How intermediate-mass stars evolve
    They consume hydrogen faster than low-mass stars, over a period of about 10 billion years. When their hydrogen is used up, the core collapses. As the core contracts, the temperature increases and the outer layer begin to expand.

    - the Sun is an intermediate- mass star
  27. How high-mass stars evolve
    they consume their fuel even faster than intermediate stars. As a result, high-mass stars die more quickly and more violently. As heavier elements form by fusion, the star expands into a supergiant 
  28. Black hole
    • A tiny patch of space that has no volume, but does have mass.
    • The gravity of a black hole is so trong noting can escape it , not even light

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