A&P Ch9 terms

Card Set Information

A&P Ch9 terms
2012-12-23 16:11:05

vital vocab for the gastrointestinal system
Show Answers:

  1. cells that produce digestive enzymes and absorb digested food
    absoptive cells
  2. the muscular layer of the wall of the alimentary canal
  3. opening in the duodenum into which the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct drain
    ampulla of Vater
  4. the short tube at the end of the rectum that contains two circular sphincters ( internal and external), which help regulate the passage of stool
    anal canal
  5. the distal orifice of the alimentary canal, where stoll passes from the body
  6. inflammation of the appendix
  7. one of four portions of the colon, it extends upward from the cecum
    ascending colon
  8. a digestive enzyme produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
  9. a pancreatic enzyme that digests proteins
  10. the blind sac at the beginning of the large intestine
  11. digestion of food by enzymes in the stomach and small bowel
    chemical digestion
  12. cells in the stomach mucosa that produce pepsinogen, an important enzyme in the digestion of food
    chief cells
  13. symptoms from cholelithiasis
    cholecystitis (gallbladder attack)
  14. a hormone produced in the intestine that stimulates the production of pancreatic secretions and gallbladder contractions and inhibits gastric motility
  15. the presence of gallstones
  16. a semiliquid mass formed in the stomach by churned food mixed with digestive juices
  17. a pancreatic enzyme that digests proteins
  18. a portion of the gastrointestinal system extending from the small intestine to the rectum that maintains water balance by absorbing and excreting water
    colon (large intestine)
  19. a fiberoptic scope used in the visual examination of the colon
  20. tubular glands located in the colon, which contain many mucous-producing goblet cells
  21. the route through which the gallbladder releases bile
    cystic duct
  22. one of four portions of the colon, it extends from the splenic flexure to the sigmoid colon
    descending colon
  23. large dome-shaped muscle used for respiration that represents the boundary between the abdominal and thoracic cavities
  24. enzymes that break down sugars
  25. weakened areas (outpouchings) in the walls of the colon
  26. inflammation of the diverticuli
  27. the sharp bend in the small intestine between the duodenum and the jejunum
    duodenojejunal flexure
  28. the first of three sections of the small intestine, it extends posteriorly from the stomach and forms a 180 degree arch within the abdomen
  29. cells in the stomach mucosa that produce regulatory hormones
    endocrine cells
  30. an opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes
    esophageal hiatus
  31. two muscular rings (upper and lower) that regulate the movement of material into and out of the esophagus
    esophageal sphincters
  32. the expandable hollow tube through which partially digested food passes from the mouth to the stomach
  33. gas within the colon
  34. the bottom of a hollow organ
  35. a saclike organ located on the lower surface of the liver that acts as a reservoir for bile
  36. rigid stones formed by digestive enzymes within the gallbladder
  37. a hormone that inhibits both gastric secretion and motility
    gastic inhibitory peptide
  38. numerous pits in the stomach mucosa
    gastric pits (invaginations)
  39. a hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the stomach that increases stomach secretions as well as the rate of gastric emptying
  40. irritation of the stomach often caused by overproduction of stomach acid by the parietal cells
  41. the opening from the esophagus to the stomach
    gastroesophageal opening
  42. system composed of structures and organs involved in the consumption, digestion and elimination of food
    gastrointestinal (GI) system or digestive system or gastrointestinal tract
  43. cells that produce a protective mucous lining
    goblet cells
  44. recesses in the colon caused by contractions of the teniae coli
  45. sensation often caused by the back flow of stomach acid into the esophagus
    heartburn (reflux esophagitis)
  46. large veins that line the inside of the anal canal
    hemorrhoidal plexus
  47. abnormal dilation of veins in the hemorrhoidal plexus
  48. the first turn (sharp left turn near the inferior border of the liver) in the large intestine at the end of the ascending colon and beginning of the transverse colon
    hepatic flexure
  49. a specialized portion of the circulatory system that directs blood from the intestine through the liver for processing
    hepatoportal system
  50. a weakening in the esophageal hiatus that allows the stomach to move above the diaphragm and may result in acid reflux, causing heartburn
    hiatal hernia
  51. an acid produced by parietal cells in the stomach that aids in digestion
    hydrochloric acid
  52. the junction between the ileum and large intestine
    ileocecal junction
  53. the last portion of the small intestine, which extends from the jejunum to the ileocecal valve at the beginning of the large intestine
  54. the chemical substance produced by parietal cells that is important in the absorption of vitamin B12
    intrinsic factor
  55. numerous pits in the stomach mucosa
    invaginations (gastric pits)
  56. the middle portion of the small intestine, it has thicker walls and more folds than the other portions of the small intestine
  57. a capillary and lymph channel contained in each villus
  58. a portion of the gastrointestinal system that extends from the small intestine to the rectum and maintains water balance by absorbing and excreting water
    large intestine (colon)
  59. pancreatic enzymes that break down fat
  60. a large abdominal organ that secretes bile into the gallbladder, it is the largest internal organ of the body
  61. the opening of a vessel
  62. chewing
  63. an anatomic landmark in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen that typically represents the location of pain associated with appendicitis
    McBurney's point
  64. chewing of food
    mechanical digestion
  65. parts of the peritoneum that hold the abdominal organs in place and provide a passageway for blood vessels and nerves to the organs
  66. the motion of substances through the digestive tract
  67. the innermost lining of the lumen of each portion of the alimentary canal, rich in glands, lymphatic tissue, and blood vessels
  68. bacteria that are located in the colon and help in the digestion of food
    normal flora
  69. a cavity created by a double fold of mesentery, which extends inferiorly from the stomach
    omental bursa
  70. an elongated organ located in the left upper quadrant, within the C-haped loop of the small intestine, it secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon
  71. the duct through which digestive enzymes pass on their way through the common hepatic duct to the duodenum at the ampulla of Vater
    pancreatic duct
  72. cells in the gastric mucosa that produce hydrochloric acid
    parietal cells
  73. a smooth membrane of connective tissue that lines the abdominal cavity
    parietal peritoneum
  74. three sets of salivary glands
    • parotid gland
    • submandibular glands
    • sublingual glands
  75. the enzyme formed from the exposure of pepsinogen to hydrochloric acid that is important in the initial breakdown
  76. an enzyme produced by the chief cells that is converted to pepsin by hydrochloric acid
  77. a condition in which parts of the stomach and duodenal lining are eroded by stomach acid
    peptic ulcer disease
  78. enzymes that break down proteins
  79. the process of contraction of the smooth muscle in the wall of the alimentary tract that serves to propel food through the system
  80. a two-layer smooth membrance of connective tissue that surrounds a group of digestive organs within the abdomen
  81. a potentially life-threatening inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity
  82. intermittent patches of lymph nodes located in the ileum
    Peyer's patches
  83. circular folds that run perpendicular to the long axis of the digestive tract and increase the surface area available for absorption
    plicae circulares
  84. the opening between the stomach and the small intestine
    pyloric opening
  85. the thick ring of smooth muscle that surrounds the pyloric opening
    pyloric sphincter
  86. the distal portion of the large intestine, ending at the anal canal
  87. an area behind the parietal peritoneum that contains the kidneys, pancreas, duodenum, and major blood vessels of the abdominal cavity
    retroperitoneal space
  88. thick folds of the stomach wall
  89. the fluid produced by the salivary glands that helps break down starches and other polysaccharides into simple sugars, washes the oral cavity, and helps weaken bacteria
  90. the primary enzyme in saliva
    salivary amylase
  91. the glands that produce saliva, includes the parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
    salivary glands
  92. a hormone produced by the duodenum that inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the production of alkaline pacreatic secretions
  93. the outer lining of the bowel
  94. one of four portions of the colon, it extends from the descending colon and forms an S-shaped tube that extends into the pelvis and ends as the rectum
    sigmoid colon
  95. the portion of the gastrointestinal system that consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and is the major site of food digestion and nutrient absorption
    small intestine
  96. a ring of muscle that surrounds an opening allowing for contraction or closing
  97. the second sharp turn in the large intestine, connecting the transverse colon to the descending colon
    splenic flexure
  98. an expandable organ that is located in the left upper quadrant, below the diaphragm
  99. the lining next to the mucosa in the gastrointestinal system that contains blood vessels and lymphatic channels
  100. a portion of the longitudinal muscle layer of the wall of the large intestine that encircles the colon
    teniae coli
  101. one of four portions of the colon, it extends from the hepatic flexure across the abdomen to the splenic flexure
    transverse colon
  102. a pancreatic enzyme that aids in the digestion of proteins
  103. the navel, which serves as the central reference point in determining the location of organs in the abdominal quadrants
  104. an appendage attached to the end of the cecum that contains large numbers of lymph nodules
    vermiform appendix
  105. fingerlike projections in the plicae circulares
  106. a smooth membrane of connective tissue that lies in close contact with the organs within the peritoneal cavity
    vesceral peritoneum