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Adrenal cortex: glucocorticoids
- ex: cortisol and cortisone
- target: all body cells
- release amino acids from skeletal muscle and release lipids from adipose tissue.
- have anti-inflammatory effects
Adrenal cortex: mineralocorticoids
- ex: aldosterone
- target: distal parts of the kidney tubules
- regulates plasma levels of sodium and potassium
- aldosterone causes active reabsorption of Na and passive reabsorption of water in the nephron of the kidney, resulting in increase in blood volume and blood pressue.
Adrenal cortex: cortical sex hormones
- ex: androgens and estrogens
- target: testes/ovaries
- function: male/female characteristics
Adrenal medulla: catecholamines
- ex: epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
- function: produces the "fight or flight" response
Pituitary gland location?
what is the name of the cord that connects the anterior and posterior parts?
- lies at the base of the brain.
- connected by a slender cord called the infundibulum.
Anterior Pituitary: growth hormone
- target: bones/ skeletal muscles
- function: stimulation of epiphyseal plate/stimulation of muscles to increase muscle mass
Anterior Pituitary: prolactin
- target: breast tissue
- function: stimulates milk production and secretion
Anterior Pituitary: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
- target: adrenal cortex
- function: stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids
Anterior Pituitary: thyroid-stimulating hormone
- target: thyroid
- function: stimulates the thyroid gland to synthesize and release thyroid hormones
Anterior Pituitary: luteinizing hormone
- target: gonads
- function: promotes production of gonadal hormones (progesterone/ testosterone)
Anterior Pituitary: follicle-stimulating hormone
- target: gonads
- function: stimulates gamete production in women and men
Anterior Pituitary: melanocyte-stimulating hormone
- target: skin
- function: unknown in humans, but in frogs it causes darkening of the skin
Anterior Pituitary: endorphins
neurotransmitters that have pain-relieving properties
Posterior Pituitary: oxytocin
- target: uterus, breasts
- function: childbirth (contractions), milk ejection
Posterior Pituitary: antidiuretic hormone
- target: kidneys
- function: prevents urine formation and water loss
Thyroid hormones: T3 and T4?
- T4: thyroxine
- T3: triiodothronine
- target: every cell
- function: major metabolic hormone
- hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
- high metabolic rate, weight loss, sweating
- bulge on neck called a goiter
hypothyroidism results in?
- fatigue, weight gain, low metabolic rate.
- in infants, it's called cretinism: mental retardation and short stature
- target: skeletal bones
- function: lowers blood Ca2+ levels
Pancreas: islets of Langerhans?
- perform the endocrine functions in the pancreas.
- composed of alpha and beta cells
- alpha cells: produce/secrete glucagon
- beta cells: produce/secrete insulin
- target: liver
- function: converts glycogen to glucose, increase blood glucose levels
- target: liver and body cells
- function: stimulates uptake of glucose by muscle and adipose cells, storage of glucose as glycogen. lowers blood glucose levels.
Type I diabetes mellitus
- 10% of cases
- is an autoimmune disease
- decreased insulin secretion
Type II diabetes mellitus
- 90% of cases
- body is resistant to insulin
Parathyroid Gland: parathyroid hormone
- target: skeleton, kidneys, the intestines
- function: raises the calcium levels in the blood by stimulating calcium breakdown in bones and decreasing calcium excretion in the kidneys.
- target: red blood cells
- function: a glycoprotein that stimulates red blood cell formation
- causes increased rate of mitosis, increased release of RBCs from the bone marrow
Pineal Gland: melatonin
function: plays a role in the regulation of our circadian rhythm.
- made out of amino acids
- bind to specific receptors on the surface of their target cells (first messenger)
- then, cyclic AMP acts as the second messenger.
- made out of cholesterol or lipid
- produced by the testes, ovaries, placenta, and adrenal cortex.
- because they're lipid soluble, they directly cross the phospholipid bilayer.
an important class of plant hormones associated with growth patterns
when the shoots of plants bend towards light
the growth of portions of plants towards or away from gravity
- stimulate rapid stem elongation, particularly in plants that normally don't grow tall
- also, they terminate the dormancy of seeds and buds
promote cell division.
- stimulates fruit ripening
- also induces senescence or aging