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The study of extinct people or of past phases of the culture of historic people through skeletal remains, fossils, and objects of human workmanship (such as implements, artifacts, nomuments, or inscriptions) found in the Earth
The Process of Archaeological excavation
- 1. Find the site
- - Walk around and look carefully
- - Look for surfact artifacts or signs of what may lay beneath the surface
- 2. Survey the Site
- - Mapping Topography/ Proton Magnometer
- 3. Excavation
- - Archaeologists are hesitant to excavate because they don't want to disturb the integrity of the site
- 4. Stratigraphy
- - You can tell how old something is and the order from the layers of soil the artifacts are in
Diggin material from the ground to find artifacts. Archaeologists are hesitant to excavate because they don't want to disturb the integrity of the site.
A way to tell how old something is or the process in which something happened through layers of soil.
Things that are too large to be removed for transport back to the laboratory. Ex. house foundations, monuments
Any object that was manufactured or altered by human activity. Can be transported back to the lab. Ex. Lithics, Pottery
Reasons for Historical bias
- - All historians have their own interpretations of history
- - The historian's time and place affects their point of veiw
Why we watch for bias
- So we can know the whole truth and make our own interpretations
Why study history?
- - To better understand how and why cultures work
- - To better understand our own culture
- - To learn new thoughts and ideas
- - To be better equipped to deal with (and predict) the future
The missing link
Circa. 5 million years ago - We don't know exactly how or when chimpanzees became human, there is a 2% difference in DNA, but that changes a lot.
- (circa. 3.5 million years ago)
- - Bipedal
- - Lucy
- - 35% brain
- - No speeck or use of tools
- (circa. 2.5 - 1.6 million years ago)
- - "Handy Man' used tools
- - Long arms
- - Primitive stone tools used for scavenging
- - 50% of brain
- (a bit after Homo Habilis - co existed)
- - Migrated from Africa to Afro - Eurasia
- - 75% of brain
- - Resemblance to modern man
- (circa 5 million years ago)
- - Adaptions to the cold, robust builds
- - Cranial capacity larger than modern man
- - Learned to make fire
- - Were bigger and stronger than us
- - Hunter gatherers
- - Primitive tools, medicine, and burial rituals
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
- (circa 130 000 years ago)
- - "Cromagnon man"
- - Drove Neanderthals to extinction
- - Developed clothing, tools, and shelters that survived colder climates
Archaeologist vs. Treasure Hunter
- - Patient
- - Preserves the site
- - Wants knowledge, fame, prestige
- - PHD educated proffessors
- - Interested in any artifacts with information
- - Wants people to know
- - Has permission from the country
- Treasure Hunter:
- - Hasty
- - Destroys the site
- - Wants profit/ money
- - Duisguised job
- -Interested in artifacts with money value
- - Wants to be hidden
- - Does not have permission from the country
Possible causes of the agricultural revolution
- - Population increase
- - Climate change
- - Experimentation of plant gatherers
- - Climate change
- - The "Accidental" Theory
The Effects of the Agricultural revolution - The pathway to civilization
1. Hunter gatherer societies
2. The Agricultural revolution - Agriculture
3. Permanent Settlements
4. Diversity of labour - Specialized trades
5. Quality of life - Order, medicine, shelter, clothes, tools
6. Leisure time
7. Cultural Products- monuments, religion, art, literature, government and law
8. Social Hierarchy - Nobility, religous people, artisans, larourers, slaves
9. Sophisticated society and civilization
The idea that a civilization leaves behind a rich cultural heritage that we still draw on today.
Ex. Great works of architechture, building blocks of math, science, literature
What is the world's oldest city?
In which regions did agriculture develop?
Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Africa, Andes, Amazon, Middle America
What are some features Jericho had?
- - Relied on grain
- - self sustaining
- - innovative
- - learned to harnest water
How did herding animals benefit early societies?
They didn't have to hunt anymore. They could also use the animals' milk and fur.
What were some challenges in early settlements?
- - Predator animals
- - Disputes among people
- - Disease that spreads quickly
What is the Neolithic and Paleolithic societies?
- Paleolithic - Early stone age
- - 2.5 million - 20 000 years ago
- - Lived in small, nomadic hunting and gathering bands
- Neolithic - New stone age
- - 10 000- 2 000 BCE
- - Had agriculture and early farming settlements
What is the pyramid of civilization made up of?
Essential Characteristics at the bottom, and Cultural legacies at the top.
Who made cave art?
The Cro- Magnons (Homo Sapiens Sapiens)
What was drawn in cave paintings?
Mostly animals, because the Cro- Magnon's lives revolved around hunting animals (Bison, horses, rhinos, bears, etc.)
- humans rarely appeared and were painted unrealistically
- Messages for other visitors
What colours were used?
soot, ochre, and blood
What were the Venuses at Willendorf?
They were small sculptures of a "Mother Godess" that may have been used to represent fertility and the creative power of nature. 30 000 were found.
Characteristics for civilization
- - Many people groups
- - Compex states of ecconomic, political, and social organization
- - Several cultural products and technicological advancements
Ex. Monuments, infastructure, zigurats, aquaducts
Why is Mesopotamia the birthplace of civilization?
Because it was the blueprint for societies to become civilizations and it had many cultural and technicological advancements.
Who were Mesopotamia's 4 main peoples?
The Sumerians - 2900 - 2 400 BCE
The Akadians (Chaldeans) - 2 400 - 2 000 BCE
The Babylonians - 2 000 - 1 500 BCE
The Assyrians - 1 000 - 530 BCE
The Sumerians (2 900 - 2 400 BCE)
- - Developed writing
- - Built zigurats (later evolved into pyramids)
- - Built basic social, ecconomic, and intellectual framework for Mesopotamia
- - King (Lugal) in times of war
- - Government in towns was democratic
- - Complex burocracy
Akkadians (2 400 - 2 000 BCE)
- - Lower Mesopotamia
- - Capitol at Akkad
- - Spread Mesopotamia to Syria
- - Fell to Barbarians
The Babylonians (2 000 - 1 500 BCE)
- - Reunited Mesopotamia from barbarians
- - King Hammurabi (1750 BCE) - First written code of law
- - System of astronomy
- - Hanging gardens of Babylon ( 7 wonders)
The Assyrians (1 000 - 530 BCE)
- - Established the world's first empire
- - Millitaristic
- - Fell to Persian invadors
- - The First written code of law
- - Established by King Hammurabi
- - Posted in every village
- - 282 laws
- - Mesopotamian writing
- - Could be read by many different languages
- - Began 3 500 BCE
- - Written on clay tablets that could be reused or fired in a kiln
- - Went from pictograms, to ideograms (stylized pictures that represented ideas), to Phonograms (represents sounds)
- - Used for trade, business activities, religous activities, storis and laws
- - Used a base 60 system with place value
- - Legacy we still use with 60 min hour and 360 degrees
- - Used for trade transactions
What are some of Mesopotamia's main innovations?
- - Code of Hammurabi
- - Cuniform
- - Math
- - Astronomy
- - Epic of Gilgamesh
- - Hanging Gardens of Babylon
- - Zigurats
- - World's fist empire
Epic of Gilgamesh
A myth about the king Gilgamesh (3 000BCE) and his adventures to find imortality.