CST 101

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Author:
imoran
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190716
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CST 101
Updated:
2012-12-27 17:45:48
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CST 101
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Computer Concepts
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  1. Antispyware Software
    A program that protects a computer from malicious software designed to threaten privacy and confidentiality
  2. Adware
    Spyware that tracks a user's internet browsing and installs malicious cookies
  3. Antivirus Software
    A program that protects a computer from malicious codes such as viruses, worms, and Trojan Horse
  4. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
    Part of the CPU that performs all the arithmetic and logic functions for the computer; handles addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, and also makes logical and comparison decisions.
  5. Application software
    programs with which you accomplish tasks such as word processing, photo editing, or sending e-mail, and use the computer in a productive manner
  6. audio port
    a port that connects audio equipment to the sound card of a computer to facilitate the exchange of data
  7. backup tape drive
    a storage device used to save data to tape resembling audiocassetts
  8. bluetooth
    wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over short distances, and often used with mobile devices
  9. boot
    the process of starting up a computer
  10. boot process
    the process of starting up a computer
  11. burn
    the process of recording data to optical media such as a CD or DVD
  12. bus topology
    a networking configuration in which all devices are connected to a central high-speed cable called the bus or backbone
  13. cathode-ray tube (CRT)
    a picture tube device used in a monitor, similar to a television
  14. CD burner
    an optical storage device capable of reading data from and writing data to a CD
  15. Central processing unit (CPU)
    the part of the computer responsible for controlling all the commands and tasks that computer performs, acting as the brain of the computer
  16. client
    in a client/server network, this is the computer most people interact with to request information from the server and to perform many of the tasks that con be accomplished with a computer
  17. client/server network
    a network consisting of client and server computers; often used in businesses
  18. clock speed
    a measurement of how quickly a CPU processes data, an indication of a CPU's processing power
  19. communication or organizational software
    a program such as Microsoft Outlook, used to send and retrieve e-mail and manage day-to-day tasks
  20. computer fluent
    the term used to describe a person who understands the capabilities and limitations of computers and knows how to use computer technology to accomplish tasks
  21. connectivity port
    a port that enables a computer to be connected to other devices or systems, such as networks, modems, and the Internet
  22. control unit
    the part of the CPU responsible for obtaining instructions from the compute's memory; the control unit interprets the instructions and executes them, thereby coordinating the activities of all the other computer components
  23. cookies
    a small text file containing information that identifies a visitor to the Web site
  24. Data
    words, numbers, sounds, or pictures that represent facts about people, events, things, or ideas
  25. database software
    programs, such as Microsoft Access, used to store and organize large amounts of data and preform complex tasks such as sorting and querying to generate specialized reports
  26. dedicated server
    a computer that is assigned to handle one specific task on a network
  27. denial of service (DoS)
    an attack caused when a large number of computers attempt to access a Web site at the same time, effectively overloading it and causing it to shut down
  28. digital video interface (DVI) port
    a port used to connect an LCD monitor to a computer in order to use a pure digital signal
  29. dot matrix
    an impact printer, useful for printing multi-page forms
  30. dot pitch
    the diagonal distance between adjacent pixels, measured in millimeter
  31. dot per inch (dpi)
    a measurement of printer resolution
  32. dual-core
    a CPU that includes two microprocessors on a single integrated circuit
  33. Embedded computers
    components of larger products, devices that perform per-defined tasks using specially programmed processors
  34. Ethernet port
    a port, slightly larger than a telephone jack, that can transmit data at speeds up to 1,000 megabits per second (Mbps) and is usually used to connect to a cable modem or a network
  35. FireWire port
    a port used to send data at rates up to 800 megabits per second (Mbps), frequently used for digital cameras or digital video recorders
  36. flash memory
    portable, nonvolatile memory, that uses electronic, solid-state circuitry
  37. slat screen
    a type of screen used in CRT monitoys, and which differs from flat panel monitors
  38. function key
    the keys numbers F1 through F12, located above the numeric key on a keyboard that have different functions depending upon the software program in use
  39. Gigabyte (GB)
    approximately one billion bytes; a unit of measure for memory and storage space
  40. gigahertz (GHz)
    one billion hertz; hertz is the unit of measure for processor speed
  41. graphical user interface (GUI)
    a computer interface with which you interact with the computer through the use of graphics and point-and-click technology; GUIs show documents as they will look in their final form
  42. hard disk drive (or hard drive)
    permanent storage device, located within the system unit, that holds all permanently stored software and data
  43. hayperthreading
    technology that allows a CPU to emulate multiple processors, improving processing power and speed
  44. icon
    a graphic representation of an object that you can click to open that object
  45. impact
    a type of printer that resembles a typewriter; a key and ink ribbon are used to imprint a character on paper
  46. information processing cycle
    the cycle composed of the four basic computer functions: input, process, output, storage
  47. ink-jet
    type of printer that uses a special nozzle and ink cartridges to distribute liquid ink on the surface of the paper
  48. input devices
    computer hardware used to enter data and instructions into a computer; examples include the keyboard, mouse, stylus, scanner, microphone, and digital camera
  49. internet control key
    usually found at the top of a key-board. this type of key can be used for various Internet-related activities including opening a Web browser and sending e-mail
  50. IrDA port
    a port enabling data transmission through the use of infrared light wave; the devices sharing data require a clear line of site with no visual obstructions
  51. key logger
    a software program or hardware device that records every keystroke made on the computer
  52. laser
    a type of printer that uses a drum, static electricity, and a laser to distribute dry ink or toner on the surface of the paper
  53. linux
    an open-source operating system based on the UNIX operating system developed for mainframe computers
  54. liquid crystal display (LCD)
    technology used in flat panel monitors, resulting in thinner and lighter monitors
  55. local area network (LAN)
    a network in which the nobes are located within a small geographic area
  56. Mac OS
    the operating system designed specifically for Apple's Mac computers
  57. Magnetic
    a type of storage process using magnetized film to store data; used by media such a floppy disk or Zip disk
  58. megabyte (MB)
    approximately one million bytes; a unit of measure for memory and storage apace
  59. megahertz
    one million hertz; hertz is the unit of measure for processor speed
  60. MIDI port
    Musical Instrument Digital Interface port used to connect electronic musical instruments to a system
  61. mobile devices
    a port that connects to a standard telephone line, usually used to connect to the Internet or a local network, with a maximum speed of 56 kilobits per second (Kbps)
  62. monitor port
    a port used to connect a monitor to a computer's graphic processing unit, located on the motherboard or video card
  63. motherboard
    a large printed circuit board located in the system unit to which all other boards are connected; the motherboard contains the central processing unit (CPU), the memory (RAM) chip, and expansion card slot
  64. multicore
    a CPU that includes more than two microprocessors on a single integrated circuit
  65. multifunction device (MFD)
    a device that has more than one purpose, often combining input and output capabilities
  66. multimedia control key
    usually found at the top of a key-board, this type of key can be used to control or mute speaker volume
  67. multimedia projectors
    output devices used to display information on a screen for veiwing by an audience
  68. network topology
    the layout and structure of a computer network
  69. Nobe
    any object connected to a network - may be a computer or a peripheral device
  70. non-impact
    a type of printer that does not actually touch the paper
  71. nonvolatile
    permanent storage, as in read only memory (ROM); data remains even when power is shut down
  72. open-source
    software whose code is made available for developers to modify and use as they wish, usually available at no cost
  73. operating system (OS)
    system software that controls the way in which a computer system functions, including the management of hardware, peripherals, and software; Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system
  74. peer-to-peer (P2P) network
    a network in which each node can communicate directly with every other node, and which is often used for home and small business network
  75. peripheral
    a hardware device connected to a computer, but not located within the system unit, such as a monitor, printer, or mouse
  76. personal firewall
    a software program or hardware device designed to prevent unauthorized access to a computer
  77. phishing
    email that masquerades as an authentic entity such as a bank or credit card company, requesting confidential information
  78. presentation software
    a program used to create dynamic slideshows and generate speaker notes and audience handouts
  79. Random Access Memory (RAM)
    a computer's temporary storage space or short-term memory and stored on ships located on the motherboard; measured in megabytes (MB) and gigabytes (GB). known as volatile memory
  80. Read Only Memory (ROM)
    a set of memory chips located ont he motherboard that stores data and instructions that cannot be changed or erased; it holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up. also known as nonvolatile memory
  81. refresh rate
    the speed at which the pixels are re-illuminated, measured in cycles per second and expressed as hertz (Hz)
  82. restore point
    a record created by Windows XP for all of a computer's system settings
  83. ring (or token-ring) topology
    a network configuration in which all devices are set up in a circular layout; data flows in a circular fashion, in one direction only
  84. software parches
    quick software fixes provided to resolve an error found in program code until a sofeware update can be issued
  85. spyware
    software designed to capture personal and confidential information that resides on a computer and then sends it elsewhere
  86. star topology
    a flexible and frequently used network configuration for businesses, in which nodes connect to a central communication device known as a switch
  87. suite
    a collection of application software programs developed by the same manufacturer, bundled together and sold at a price that is usually less than the cost of purchasing each program individually
  88. system unit
    the tower, box or console that contains the critical hardware and electrical components of a computer
  89. trojan horse
    a program that appears to be useful of desirable, but acts maliciously in the background after installation
  90. universal serial bus (USB) port
    a versatile port used to connect a wide array of peripheral devices to a computer.
  91. utility program
    a computer of system software, typically as small program used to perform routine maintenance and housekeeping tasks for the computer
  92. virus
    malicious code or program, usually installed on a computer without the user's knowledge or permission
  93. volatile
    temporary storage, as in random access memory (RAM): data is erased when power is shut down or when you close a program
  94. Wide area network (WAN)
    a network composed of local area networks connected over long distances
  95. worm
    a program that is able to replicate and spread from computer to computer without human interaction
  96. zip drive
    a magnetic storage device used to save and retrieve data on Zip drives
  97. zombie
    a computer that is controlled remotely and can be used to help spread viruses, spyware, and spam

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