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What are the 4 stages of mitosis?
- 1. prophase
- 2. metaphase
- 3. anaphase
- 4. telophase
Explain the first stage of mitosis, prophase?
- 1. the cell enters prophase when it begins to divide
- 2. the replicated chromosomes (chromatids) become visible
- 3. the mitotic apparatus appears
Explain the second stage of mitosis, metaphase?
- 1. 'position changing'
- 2. the chromatids align on centre of spindle attached by their centromeres
Explain the third phase of mitosis, anaphase?
- 1. the 'apart phase'
- 2. the centromeres separate
Explain the fouth stage of mitosis, telophase?
- 1. the 'end phase'
- 2. mitotic apparatus disappears
- 3. chromosomes uncoil
- 4. the nuclear envelope re-appears
What is function of the mitochondria?
it is where the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is produced in a cell aka the powerhouse of a cell, where all the energy is stored
What causes x ray photons to ionise in tissues?
Each x ray photon that interacts by either photoelectric absorption or Compton scatter causes further ionisation in surrounding atoms
Most ionisations occur in atoms that make up non-critical cell structures, such as the cytoplasm,
In which 3 ways does molecular change occur?
What are the 2 effects of radiation on the cell?
Ionising radiation has enough energy to disrupt chemical bonds either by direct or indirect effect.