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What is cardiac output?
Flow per minute from the heart into the systemic circulation
Which factors can effect cardiac output?
- Increase in O2 demand
- Reduced cardiac contractility
- Cardiac compensation
- Heart Rate (Para/Sympathetic/Humoral)
- Stroke Volume (Frank Starlings Law)
What is the equation for stroke volume?
EDV - ESV
What is the preload?
Amount of stretch before ejection
What regulates preload?
Venous return to the heart
How does preload effect stroke volume?
Increase in PL increases SV (increase stretch - FS Law)
What is the afterload?
Load against which the LV ejects once the AV opens
Simple measure of afterload?
What does this graph represent?
1st tracing has a higher dP/dT indicating a higher force of contraction
What is the "Fick Principle"?
In a steady state, the flow of blood through an organ is equal to the amount of substance absorbed by the blood flowing through that organ, divided by the difference in the blood content of that substance between the blood entering and leaving that organ
Equation for Fick Principle (cardiac output)
Which direction are shunts most likely to follow?
Higher pressure to lower pressure: Left - Right
How is oxygen content calculated?
(Oxygen saturation x Oxygen Capacity)/100
For calculating CO, how is O2cons calculated?
O2cons x Body Surface Area
Clinical significance of Qp:Qs < 1.5
Surgery not necessary
Clinical significance of Qp:Qs 1.5-3
Mild to Moderate shunt
Clinical significance of Qp:Qs > 3
Significant shunt, may require surgery
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