Human Nervous System Anatomy and Function Study Guide

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Saladeen
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190841
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Human Nervous System Anatomy and Function Study Guide
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2012-12-30 12:59:26
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Vocabulary Definition clarification
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Cell of the Nervous System: 1.1 Neurons
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  1. Put (a weapon such as a knife or sword) into a sheathEncase (something) in a close-fitting or protective covering.
    sheathe
  2. A mixture of proteins and phospholipids forming a whitish insulating sheath around many nerve fibers, increasing the speed at which impulses are conducted
    my·e·lin
  3. Is a type of cell primarily associated with structural support.
    sus·ten·tac·u·lar cell
  4. These are non-neuronal cells which have functions such as insulating neurons, directing growth, regulating blood flow, and orchestrating immune responses. Classes of glial cell include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells.
    glial cells
  5. Near the surface of the body, with special reference to the circulation and nervous system.
    pe·riph·er·al- neu·rons
  6. He was a German physiologist from the year of------ to ------. He showed that animals (as well as plants) are made up of individual cells and that the egg begins life as a single cell. He also discovered the cells that form the myelin sheaths of nerve fibers
    Schwann Theodor Ambrose Hubert (1810–82),
  7. There are ____ types of Schwann cell?
    • 1.Two types
    • 2. Myelinating and Nonmyelinating
  8. This cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath.
    Myelinating Schwann cells
  9. This cells derived from neural stem/glial cells and are primarily responsible for the development of myelin or insulation of nerves to allow conductivity to happen smoothly.
    ol·i·go·den·dro·cyte cells
  10. A point at which lines or pathways intersect or branch; a central or connecting point.
    node
  11. regularly spaced constrictions of the myelin sheath, occurying at varying intervals along the length of a nerve fiber.
    Ranvier
  12. >The movement of a wave through a medium
    >The spreading of something (a belief or practice) into new regions.
    propagation
  13. >Abrupt evolutionary change; sudden large-scale mutation
    >The movement of hard particles such as sand over an uneven surface in a turbulent flow of air or water.
    >The action of leaping or dancing
    sal·ta·tion
  14. A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged. This impairs the conduction of signals in the affected nerves, causing impairment in sensation, movement, cognition, or other functions depending on which nerves are involved.
    demyelination
  15. Divide into two branches or forks.
    bi·fur·cate
  16. A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface.
    la·mel·li·po·di·um
  17. A long, slender, tapering pseudopodium, as found in some protozoans and in embryonic cells
    fil·o·po·di·um
  18. a temporary protrusion or retractile process of the cytoplasm of a cell that functions (as in an amoeba) especially in a locomotor or food gathering capacity. 
    pseu·do·po·dia
  19. A protein that forms (together with myosin) the contractile filaments of muscle cells, and is also involved in motion in other types of cells.
    ac·tin
  20. >Stick fast to (a surface or substance)
    >Believe in and follow the practices of
    > Represent truthfully and in detail
    ad·here
  21. >The action or process of adhering to a surface or object
    >The frictional grip of wheels, shoes, etc., on a road, track, or other surface
    >The sticking together of particles of different substances
    >Allegiance or faithfulness to a particular person, party, or set of ideas
    >An abnormal union of membranous surfaces due to inflammation or injury
    ad·he·sion
  22. Any of a class of proteins present in the serum and cells of the immune system, that function as antibodies
    im·mu·no·glob·u·lin
  23. A substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs, in particularThe surface or material on or from which an organism lives, grows, or obtains its nourishment.
    sub·strate
  24. A fibrous protein present in the basal lamina of the epithelia.
    lam·i·nin
  25. biological research on stem cells derived from embryos and on their use in medicine
    Embryonic stem cell
  26. A single-celled microscopic animal of a group of phyla of the kingdom Protista, such as an ameba, flagellate, ciliate, or sporozoan.
    pro·to·zo·an
  27. CAM's : C------A-----M
    Cell-------Adhesion----Molecule.
  28. A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
    mol·e·cule
  29. CAM's specific To Neural system incliding N-cam, Neuroglial Cam or NgCAM, Tag-1, MAG, and DCC, all of which are part of the:
    immunoglobulin superfamily
  30. Situated or taking place outside a cell or cells
    ex·tra·cel·lu·lar
  31. >An ion or molecule attached to a metal atom by coordinate bonding.
    >A molecule that binds to another (usually larger) molecule.
    li·gand
  32. >These cells which assist in the subcellular organization of both neuron axon growth and migration.
    >These cells are typically other, sometimes immature, neurons and glial cells.
    Guidepost cells
  33. Li-gand:
    (from the Latin ligandum, meaning:
    binding
  34. It is a signal triggering molecule, binding to a site on a target protein.
    Li-gand

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