Chapter 21

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oiojustinoio
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19086
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Chapter 21
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2010-05-12 21:18:07
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Diseases of the Skin and Eyes
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  1. Staphlococcus Coagulase
    • - Is on every human.
    • - produce coagulase (clots blood)
  2. Viral Diseases of the Skin
    Measles, Rubella, Fifth Disease, Roseola
    Dx: Clinical signs and symptoms. Confirmed by serology or PCR
  3. Measles (V)
    • Pathogen: Measles
    • POE: Respiratory Tract
    • Symptoms: Skin Rash of reddish macules on face then spreading to extremities.
    • Method Of Transmission: Aerosol
    • Treatment: No treatment; preexposure vaccine
  4. Rubella (V)
    • Pathogen: Rubella Virus
    • POE: Respiratory Tract
    • Symptoms: MIld macular disease with a measles like rash, disappears in 3 days or less
    • Method Of Transmission:
    • Treatment:
  5. Fifth Disease (V)
    • Pathogen: Human parovirus B19
    • POE: Respiratory Tract
    • Symptoms: Mild disease with a macular facial rash
    • Method Of Transmission: Aerosol
    • Treatment: None
  6. Roseola (V)
    • Pathogen: Human herpesvirus 6, 7
    • POE: Respiratory Tract
    • Symptoms: High fever followed by macular body rash
    • Method Of Transmission: Aerosol
    • Treatment: None
  7. Candidiasis (F)
    Gram staining of skin scrapings
    • Pathogen: Candida albicans
    • POE: Skin; Mucous membranes
    • Symptoms: Macular rash
    • Method Of Transmission: Direct contact; endogenous infection
    • Treatment: Miconazole, clotrimozole
  8. Impetigo (B)
    Dx: Culturing
    • Pathogen: S. aureus
    • POE: Skin
    • Symptoms: Vesicles on the skin
    • Method Of Transmission: Direct Contact; fomites?
    • Treatment: Topical Antibiotics
  9. Smallpox (V)
    Dx: clinical signs and symptoms
    confirmed with PCR?
    • Pathogen: Smallpox Virus
    • POE: Respiratory tract
    • Symptoms: Pustules that may be confluent on skin
    • Method Of Transmission: Aerosol
    • Treatment: None
  10. Monkeypox (V)
    • Pathogen: Monkeypox Virus
    • POE: Respiratory Tract
    • Symptoms: Pustules, similar to smallpox
    • Method Of Transmission: direct contact/aerosol from infected small mammals
    • Treatment: None
  11. Chickenpox [Varicella] (V)
    • Pathogen: Varicella-zoster virus
    • POE: respiratory tract
    • Symptoms: vesicle in most cases confined to face, throat, and lower back
    • Method Of Transmission: Aerosol
    • Treatment: Acycolvir for immunocompromised pts; preexposure vaccine
  12. Shingles [herpes-zoster] (V)
    • Pathogen: Varicella-zoster virus
    • POE: endogenous infection of peripheral nerves
    • Symptoms: vessicles typically on one side of waist, face scalp, or upper chest
    • Method Of Transmission: recurrence of latent chickenpox infection
    • Treatment: Acyclovir preventive vaccine
  13. Herpes simplex (V)
    • Pathogen: Herpes simplex virus type 1
    • POE: Skin; Mucous Membranes
    • Symptoms: Vesicles around mouth; can also affect other areas of skin and mucious membranes
    • Method Of Transmission: Direct contact; recurring latent infection
    • Treatment: Acyclovir
  14. Conjunctivitis (B)
    • Pathogen: Haemophilus influenzae
    • POE: Conjunctiva
    • Symptoms: Redness
    • Method Of Transmission: direct contact; fomites
    • Treatment: none
  15. Ophthalmia neonatorum (B)
    • Pathogen: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • POE: Conjunctiva
    • Symptoms: Acute infection with pus formation
    • Method Of Transmission: Birth canal
    • Treatment: Prevention: tetracycline, erythromycin, or providone - iodine
  16. Inclusion conjunctivitis (B)
    • Pathogen: Chlamydia trachomatis
    • POE: Conjunctiva
    • Symptoms: Swelling of eyelid; pus and mucus formation
    • Method Of Transmission: birth canal, swimming pool
    • Treatment: Tetracycline
  17. Trachoma (B)
    • Pathogen: Chlamydia trachomatis
    • POE: Conjunctiva
    • Symptoms: Conjunctivitis
    • Method Of Transmission: Direct contact; fomites; flies
    • Treatment: Azithromycin
  18. Conjunctivitis (V)
    • Pathogen: Adenoviruses
    • POE: conjunctiva
    • Symptoms: redness
    • Method Of Transmission: direct contact; recurring latent infection
    • Treatment: trifluridine may be effective
  19. Herpetic keratitis (V)
    • Pathogen: Herpes simplex type 1 virus
    • Portal of Entry: Conjunctiva; Cornea
    • Symptoms: Keratitis
    • Method of Transmission: Direct Contact
    • Treatment: trifluridine may be effective
  20. Acanthatmoeba keratitis (Protozoan Disease)
    • Pathogen: Acanthatmoeba spp.
    • Portal of Entry: Corneal abrasion; soft contact lenses may prevent reoval of amoeba by blinking
    • Symptoms: Keratitis
    • Method of Transmission: Contact with fresh water
    • Treatment: Propamidine isethionate or miconazole; corneal transplant or eye removal
  21. Patchy Redness and Pimple-Like Conditions
  22. Folliculitis (B)
    • Pathogen: S. aureus
    • Portal of Entry: Hair follicle
    • Symptoms: infection of hair follicle
    • Method of Transmission: Direct contact; fomites; endogenous infection
    • Treatment: Draining of pus; topical antibiotics
  23. Toxic Shock Syndrome (B)
    • Pathogen: S. aureus
    • Portal of Entry: Surgical incisions
    • Symptoms: Fever, Rash, shock
    • Method of Transmission: Endogenous infection
    • Treatment: Antibiotics, depending of sensitivity profile
  24. Necrotizing fasciitis (B)
    • Pathogen: S. pyogenes
    • Portal of Entry: Skin, mucous membranes
    • Symptoms: Extensive soft- tissue destruction
    • Method of Transmission: Diredt Contact
    • Treatment: Surgical tissue removal; broad spectrum antibiotics
  25. Erysipelas (B)
    • Pathogen: S. pyogenes
    • Portal of Entry: Skin; mucous membranes
    • Symptoms: Reddish patches on skin' often with fever
    • Method of Transmission: Endogenous Infection
    • Treatment: Cephalosporin
  26. Pseudomonas dermatitis (B)
    • Pathogen: Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Portal of Entry: Skin abrasions
    • Symptoms: Superficial Rash
    • Method of Transmission: Swimming water; hot tubs
    • Treatment: Usually self limiting
  27. Otitis externa (B)
    • Pathogen: Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Portal of Entry: Ear
    • Symptoms: Superficial inferction of external ear canal
    • Method of Transmission: Swimming water
    • Treatment: Fluoroquinolones
  28. Acne (B)
    • Pathogen: Propionibacterium acnes
    • Portal of Entry: Sebum channels
    • Symptoms: Inflamed lesions originating with accumulations of sebum that rupture a hair follicle
    • Method of Transmission: Direct contact
    • Treatment: Benzoyl peroxide, isotretinoin, azelaic acid
  29. Buruli ulcer (B)
    • Pathogen: Mycobacterium ulcerans
    • Portal of Entry: Skin
    • Symptoms: Localized swelling or hardness progresing to deep ulcer
    • Method of Transmission: Contaminated Water
    • Treatment: Antimycobacterial drugs
  30. Warts (V)
    Dx: clinical signs and symptoms
    • Pathogen: Papillomavirus
    • Portal of Entry: Skin
    • Symptoms: horny projection of skin by proliferation of cells
    • Method of Transmission: Direct contact
    • Treatment: liquid nitrogen cryotherapy, electro desiccation, acids, lazers
  31. Ringworm (V)
    Dx: microscopic examination
    • Pathogen: Microsporum, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton spp.
    • Portal of Entry: Skin
    • Symptoms: skin lesions of varied appearance
    • Method of Transmission: direct contact; fomites
    • Treatment: Griseofulvin (orally); miconazole, clotrimazole (topically)
  32. Sporotrichosis (F)
    • Pathogen: Sporothrix schenkii
    • Portal of Entry: skin abrasions
    • Symptoms: ulcer at site of infection spreading into lymph
    • Method of Transmission: soil
    • Treatment: potassium iodide solution (orally)
  33. Scabies (Parasitic Infestations)
    Dx: microscopic examinations of parasite
    • Pathogen: Sarcoptes scabiei (mite)
    • Portal of Entry: Skin
    • Symptoms: Papules, itching
    • Method of Transmission: Direct contact
    • Treatment: Gamma benzene, hexachloride, permethrin (topically)
  34. Pediculosis - Lice (Parasitic infestations)
    • Pathogen: Pediculus humanus captis
    • Portal of Entry: Skin
    • Symptoms: Itching
    • Method of Transmission: primary direct contact; fomites in bedding
    • Treatment: topical insecticide preparations

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