Chapter 8 Glossary Terms
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- Radiation consisting of electromagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light
- i.e.- Visible light, radio waves, and X rays)
- A telescope that uses a lens to collect the light from an object
- A telescope that uses a mirror to collect light from an object
- An artificial (human made) object or vehicle that orbits Earth, the Moon, or other celestial bodies; also a celestial body that orbits another of fa larger size
- i.e.- the Moon is Earth's natural satellite
Observatories that orbit other celestial objects
Solar nebula theory
- The theory that described how stars and planets form from contracting, spinning disks of gas and dust. This is shown below.
A celestial object body made of hot gases, mainly hydrogen and some helium
A vast cloud of gas and dust, which may be the birthplace of stars and planets
Hot, condensed object at the center of a nebula
The process of energy production in which hydrogen nuclei combine to form helium nuclei
- The surface layer of the sun
- Shown on the right hand side below
- An area of strong magnestic fields on the photosphere
A stream of fastmoving charged particles ejected by the Sun into the solar system
- A solar flare is when complex groups of sun spots eject solar wind.
Importance of the Sun
- The Sun is needed for all life on Earth. Energy from the Sun drives most processes on Earth that support daily activities
- i.e.- Sun is necessary in finding sufficient food, and providing shelter. The Sun is also responsible of the natural heating and lighting of the Earth
A star's total energy output per second; its power in joules per second (j/s)
The magnitude of a star that we would observe if the stars were placed 32.6 light years from Earth
An optical instrument that produces a spectrum from a narrow beam of light, and usually projects the spectrum onto a photographic plate of a digital detector
Certain specific wavelengths within a spectrum characterized by lines; spectral lines identify specific chemical elements
Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram
A graph that compares the properties of stars
- A narrow band of stars on the H-R diagram that runs diagonally from the upper left (bright, hot stars) to the bottom right (dim, cool stars)
- About 90% of stars including hte Sun are in the main sequence
A small, dim, hot star
A massive explosion on which the entire outer portion of a star is blown off
A star so dense that only neutrons can exiat in the core
How low-mass stars evolve
Low-mass stars consume their hydrogen slowly over a time frame that may be up to 100 billion years. As they age they loose mass, become white dwarfs.
How intermediate-mass stars evolve
They consume hydrogen faster than low-mass stars. When their hydrogen is used up the core collapse. The layers begin to expand and the temperature rises. It now appears red and is called a red giant.
How high-mass stars evolve
These consume fuel faster than the other 2 and die quickly and violently. The stars expand into supergiants and heavy elements form by fusion. The outer part of the star creates a supernova, which can be billions of times brighter than the original star. A supernova ejects elements into the universe becoming new planets, stars, etc.
- A tiny patch of space that has no volume, but has mass and gravity
- Extremely strong gravitational pull means nothing can escape, not even light
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