Ch 5 World History

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hchristensen
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Ch 5 World History
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2012-12-31 00:57:15
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Questions from Ch 5 World History for Hi-Q
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  1. What term means city at the top?
    acropolis
  2. Who was the greatest hero of Athens, and killed the mythological beast the Minotaur?
    Theseus
  3. What group of people lived on the large Greek island of Crete and created an elegant civilization that had great power in the Mediterranean world?
    Minoans
  4. What three seas were important transportation routes for the Greek people and linked most parts of Greece?
    • Aegean Sea
    • Ionian Sea
    • Black Sea
  5. What term means suitable for farming?
    arable
  6. What were some of the people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C. later known as?  The name came from their leading city, Mycenae and the people were Indo-Europeans who had migrated.
    Mycenaeans
  7. During the 1200s B.C., the Mycenaeans fought a ten-year war against what independent trading city located in Anatolia?
    Troy
  8. The Trojan War began because a Trojan prince had kidnapped what beautiful wife of a Greek king?
    Helen
  9. What German archaeologist conducted excavations in northwest Turkey during the 1870s and found evidence that the stories of the Trojan War might have been based on real cities, people, and events?
    Heinrich Schliemann
  10. What new group of people moved into the war-torn countryside of Greece?  These people spoke a dialect of Greek and may have been distant relatives of the Bronze Age Greeks.
    Dorians
  11. What blind man was the greatest storyteller?
    Homer
  12. What are narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds called?
    epics
  13. The Trojan War forms the backdrop for what one of Homer's great epic poems?
    the Iliad
  14. Who are the heroes of the Iliad? (warriors)
    • Achilles (Greek)
    • Hector (Trojan)
  15. Who translated the excerpt of the Iliad by Homer in which Hector's wife begs him not to fight Achilles?
    Ian Johnston
  16. What is the term for the Greek heroic ideal that means virtue and excellence?
    arete (ar-uh-TAY)
  17. What is the term for traditional stories?
    myths
  18. What cyclops, one-eyed monster, appears in Homer's epic the Odyssey?
    Polyphemus
  19. The cyclops Polyphemus appears in what one of Homer's epics?
    the Odyssey
  20. What is the term for city-state?
    polis
  21. What is the term for a government run by a single person, called a king?
    monarchy
  22. What is the term for a government ruled by a small group of noble, landowning families?
    aristocracy
  23. What is the term for a government ruled by a few powerful people?
    oligarchy
  24. What were powerful individuals, usually nobles or other wealthy citizens, who sometimes seized control of the government by appealing to the common people for support called?
    tyrants
  25. What is the term for a government run by the people?
    democracy
  26. In 621 B.C., what nobleman developed a legal code based on the idea that all Athenians, rich and poor, were equal under the law?
    Draco
  27. The legal code prepared by Draco was so harsh that what word has come to mean "extreme cruelty or severity"?
    draconian
  28. What ruler came to power in 594 B.C. and outlawed debt slavery and organized all Athenian citizens into four social classes according to wealth?
    Solon
  29. Around 500 B.C., what Athenian ruler broke up the power of the nobility by organizing citizens into ten groups based on where they lived rather than on their wealth?
    Cleisthenes
  30. Cleisthenes created what body that proposed laws and counseled the assembly?
    Council of Five Hundred
  31. Schooling began around what age?
    7 years
  32. Sparta was located in what southern part of Greece?
    Peloponnesus
  33. What is the term for peasants forced to stay on the land they worked?
    helots
  34. Around 725 B.C., Sparta conquered what neighboring region and took over the land?  Their people then were forced to become helots.
    Messenia (Messenians)
  35. What was the most famous sports festival and was held every four years?
    the Olympic games
  36. At first, the Olympic games lasted only one day and only had what contest (race)?
    stade
  37. What was the women's sports festival in ancient Greece called?
    Hera festival
  38. What was the area where Zeus threw a thunderbolt down from Mount Olympus called?  It was the site of the Olympic games.
    Olympia
  39. What was composed of all Spartan citizens, elected officials and voted on major issues?
    assembly
  40. What group, made up of 30 older citizens of Sparta, proposed laws on which the assembly voted?
    Council of Elders
  41. What metal later replaced bronze in the manufacture of weapons?
    iron
  42. What were the foot soldiers of the new kind of army called?
    hoplites
  43. What was the formation in which the hoplites stood side by side, each holding a spear in one hand and a shield in the other called?
    phalanx
  44. What was the conflict between Greece and the Persian Empire called?  It began on Ionia on the coast of Anatolia.
    Persian Wars
  45. What Persian king defeated the Ionian Greeks and then vowed to destroy Athens in revenge?
    Darius the Great
  46. What young runner was chosen by Greek army leaders to race back to Athens?
    Pheidippides
  47. Dashing the 26 miles from Marathon to Athens, what was the message that Pheidippides delivered?
    "Rejoice, we conquer"
  48. In 480 B.C., who was Darius the Great's son and successor who assembled an enormous invasion force to crush Athens?
    Xerxes
  49. When Xerxes came to a mountain pass at what place, 7,000 Greeks , including 300 Spartans, blocked his way?
    Thermopylae
  50. What Athenian leader convinced everyone to evacuate the city and fight at sea?
    Themistocles
  51. The Athenians positioned their fleet in a narrow channel near what island, a few miles southwest of Athens?
    Salamis
  52. Xerxes faced another defeat in 479 B.C., when the Greeks crushed the Persian army at what battle?
    Battle of Plataea
  53. In 480 B.C., several Greek city-states formed what alliance?  The alliance took its name from Delos, the island in the Aegean Sea where it had its heaquarters.
    Delian League
  54. What is the period in which Athens experienced a growth in intellectual and artistic learning called? (477 to 431 B.C.)
    Golden Age of Athens
  55. What wise and able statesman led Athens during much of its golden age?
    Pericles
  56. What is the period from 461 to 429 B.C. in Athens called?
    Age of Pericles
  57. What is the term for a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives?
    direct democracy
  58. What one of architecture's noblest works was at the center of Pericles' plan to have the greatest Greek artists and architects create magnificent sculptures and buildings to glorify Athens?
    the Parthenon
  59. Pericles' father had led the Athenian assembly and fought at what battle in the Persian Wars?
    Battle of Salamis
  60. Pericles entrusted much of the work on the Parthenon to what sculptor?
    Phidias
  61. The values of harmony, order, balance, and proportion became the standard of what?
    classical art
  62. What was a serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal called?
    tragedy
  63. Who were often the main characters of tragedies?
    tragic hero
  64. What was the tragic flaw of excessive pride called?
    hubris
  65. What dramatist wrote more than 80 plays, with his most notable being the trilogy Oresteia, based on the family of Agamemnon, the Mycenaen king who commanded the Greeks at Troy?  These plays examine the idea of justice.
    Aeschylus
  66. What is Aeschylus' trilogy based on the family of Agamemnon called?
    Oresteia
  67. What Mycenaean king is the basis of Aeschylus' trilogy Oresteia?
    Agamemnon
  68. What dramatist wrote more than 100 plays, including the tragedies Oedipus the King and Antigone?
    Sophocles
  69. What two tragedies did Sophocles write?
    • Oedipus the King
    • Antigone
  70. What dramatist wrote the play Medea and often featured strong women in his works?
    Euripides
  71. What play did Euripides write?
    Medea
  72. What kind of drama contained scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor?
    comedy
  73. What playwright wrote the first great comedies for the stage, including The Birds and Lysistrata?
    Aristophanes
  74. What comedies did Artistophanes write?
    • The Birds
    • Lysistrata
  75. What comedy, written by Aristophanes, portrayed the women of Athens forcing their husbands to end the Peloponnesian War?
    Lysistrata
  76. What Greek who lived in Athens for a time, pioneered the accurate reporting of events?
    Herodotus
  77. What Athenian was the greatest historian of the classical age?
    Thecydides
  78. What was the conflict between Athens and Sparta called?
    Pelopoennesian War
  79. What city-state was one of Sparta's wealthiest allies?
    Syracuse
  80. What did the Greeks call thinkers who were determined to seek the truth, no matter where the search led them?  The term meant "lovers of wisdom".
    philosophers
  81. What group of philosophers questioned people's unexamined beliefs and ideas about justice and other traditional values?
    the Sophists
  82. Who was one of the most famous Sophists who questioned the existence of the traditional Greek gods?
    Protagoras
  83. Who was one critic of the Sophists who believed that absolute standards did exist for truth and justice?  He died by drinking hemlock.
    Socrates
  84. What is the term for a slow-acting poison?
    hemlock
  85. Who was a student of Socrates and wrote The Republic in the 370s B.C.?  In his ideal society, all citizens would fall naturally into three groups: farmers and artisans, warriors, and the ruling class.  The person with the greatest insight and intellect from the ruling class would be chosen philosopher-king.
    Plato
  86. What was Plato's most famous work, written in the 370s B.C.?
    The Republic
  87. In 387 B.C., Plato founded what school in Athens that lasted for about 900 years?
    the Academy
  88. What philosopher was a student of Plato and questioned the nature of the work and of human belief, thought, and knowledge?  His work provides the basis of the scientific method used today.
    Aristotle
  89. Who was one of Aristotle's most famous pupils?
    Alexander, son of King Philip II of Macedonia
  90. Who was Alexander's father?
    King Philip II of Macedonia
  91. In 335 B.C., Aristotle opened what school in Athens that eventually rivaled the Academy?
    Lyceum
  92. Discovered in 1863, what sculpture on Rhodes was probably created around 203 B.C. to honor a sea battle?
    Nike (or Winged Victory) of Samothrace
  93. Where is the Nike currently displayed?
    the Louvre Museum in Paris
  94. What are the two major types of Greek pottery?
    • black-figure pottery
    • red-figure pottery
  95. Zeus, disguised as a young bull, carried off what young woman?
    Europa
  96. What kingdom, located just north of Greece, had rough terrain and a cold climate and was looked down upon by the Greeks?  These people had shrewd and fearless kings.
    Macedonia
  97. What Athenian orator tried to warn the Greeks of the threat Philip and his army posed?
    Demosthenes
  98. What city-state in central Greece joined forces with Athens in 338 B.C. to fight Philip?
    Thebes
  99. The Macedonians soundly defeated the Greeks at what battle that ended Greek independence?
    battle of Chaeronea
  100. What was the name of the wild horse that Alexander the Great calmed at the age of eight or nine?
    Bucephalus
  101. What is the ancient name for the Dardanelles, the narrow straits that separate Europe from Asia Minor?
    The Hellespont
  102. What is The Hellespont the ancient name of?
    the Dardanelles
  103. What book did Alexander keep a copy of under his pillow?
    the Iliad
  104. Persian messengers raced along what path to spread the news of Alexander's invasion?
    Royal Road
  105. Alexander's men and the Persians met at what place when Alexander invaded Persia?
    Granicus River
  106. Who was the Persian king when Alexander was victorious at the Granicus River?
    Darius III
  107. What is the term for god-king?
    pharaoh
  108. After leaving Egypt, Alexander and the Persians met at what small village near the ruins of ancient Nineveh?
    Gaugamela
  109. What was Persia's royal capital?
    Persepolis
  110. What Greek historian writing about 500 years after Alexander's time, suggested that the fire set to Persepolis was set in revenge for the Persian burning of Athens?
    Arrian
  111. Who became king of Macedonia and took control of the Greek city-states after Alexander's death?
    Antigonus
  112. Who seized Egypt, took the title of pharaoh, and established a dynasty after Alexander's death?
    Ptolemy
  113. Who took most of the old Persian Empire, which became known as the Seleucid kingdom after Alexander's death?
    Seleucus
  114. What did the old Persian Empire become known as?
    Seleucid kingdom
  115. What is the blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences called?
    Hellenistic
  116. What is Greek also known as?
    Hellenic
  117. What was the popular spoken language used in Hellenistic cities and was the direct result of cultural blending?
    Koine (koy-NAY)
  118. What Egyptian city became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization?
    Alexandria
  119. What lighthouse soared more than 350 feet over the harbor and contained a polished bronze mirror that, at night, reflected the light from a blazing fire?
    Pharos
  120. What words means "house of the muses"?
    museum
  121. Who were the Greek goddesses of arts and sciences?
    the Muses
  122. What building with a collection of half a million papyrus scrolls included many of the masterpieces of ancient literature and was the first true research library in the world?
    Alexandrian Library
  123. What astronomer reached the scientific conclusions that the Sun was at least 300 times larger than Earth and that Earth and the other planets revolved around the Sun?
    Aristarchus of Samos
  124. In the 2nd century A.D., what last renowned astronomer of Alexandria incorrectly placed Earth at the center of the solar system?
    Ptolemy
  125. Who was the director of the Alexandrian Library and tried to calculate Earth's true size?
    Eratosthenes
  126. What astronomer lived in Alexandria for a time and charted the position of 850 stars?
    Hipparchus
  127. Who was a highly regarded mathematician in Alexandria and wrote the book Elements that contained 465 carefully presented geometry propositions and proofs?
    Euclid
  128. What book containing 465 carefully presented geometry propositions and proofs, was written by Euclid?
    Elements
  129. What Hellenistic scientist accurately estimated the value of pi and explained the law of the lever?
    Archimedes
  130. What is the term for the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter?
    pi
  131. What is a device that raised water from the ground called?
    Archimedes screw
  132. What Greek philosopher founded the school of philosophy called Stoicism?
    Zeno
  133. What school of philosophy was founded by Zeno and proposed that people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of god or the natural laws that God established to run the universe?
    Stoicism
  134. Who founded the school of thought called Epicureanism?
    Epicurus
  135. What word means a person devoted to pursuing human pleasures, especially the enjoyment of good food?
    epicurean
  136. What bronze Hellenistic statues is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and was toppled by an earthquake in 225 B.C.?
    Colossus of Rhodes

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