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What is etiology?
cause/origin of a condition
What does pre-lingual deafness mean?
- deafness before language develops
- deafness at birth
What does peri-lingual deafness mean?
- deafness while learning language
- peri = near
What does post-lingual deafness meaning?
deafness after language already developed
What does otitus mean?
What does externa mean?
What does media mean?
What is an ENT?
Ear, nose throat
What is atresia?
means no ear canal
What is the eustachian tube?
tube connecting the middle ear to the back of the nose and throat
What are the ossicles?
- 3 tiny bones of the middle ear
- malleus or hammer
- incus or anvil
- stapes or stirrup
What is otitus media?
bacterial or viral infection of middle ear
What is otoxic?
- damage to the ear
- caused by poison or toxins
What is an Otolaryngologist specializing in?
- diseases, anatomy & functions of ENT
What is perception?
processing information through senses
What is auditory discrimination?
ability to hear differences between sounds.
What is auditory memory?
ability to remember what is heard in a meaningful way.
What are phonics?
- study of speech sounds
- as they relate to reading and speaking
What is a phoneme?
- smallest unit of sound
- doesn't have meaning
What is a morpheme?
smallest linguistic unit of meaning
What is nasality?
- quality of speech sounds when
- the nasal cavity is used as a resonator
Where in the ear do Conductive Hearing Losses occur?
outer to middle to inner ear interference
What is the prognosis for Conductive Hearing Losses?
- Pretty good chances of successful treatment
- amplification most often works
- surgery with tubes in the ears can work.
- reconstructive surgery, prosthetic inserted to replace defect bone
Interferences of Conductive Loss?
- *any condition that interferes with transmission of sound waves to the inner ear
- blockage of external ear canal to inner ear, ie., wax
- swelling from infections
- fluid in the eustachian tube blocks mobility of ear drum
- problem with the ossicles bones - need reconstruction surgery or possible prosthetic inserted
Central Hearing Loss
- person functions as Deaf
- *hears sounds but brain can't interpret meaning
- neurofibromitosis = tumors (mostly adults)
- Intervention = brain stem implant (FDA approved for adults only)
Functional Hearing Loss
- not hearing loss...emotional/psychological problem
- intervention = therapy & educating the people around the patient
Functional Hearing Loss = Difficult Environments
- *think mom
- multiple conversations
- background noise such as radio, TV, vaccum, AC
- misses first sentences in conversations
- misses names of people when introduced
Auditory Processing Disorder
- functions as a hearing person
- corpus callum (center of brain) does not communicate with both sides of the brain/ears
How do states classify auditory processing?
- learning disability or communication disorder
- some won't do either....make them 504 with DHH 504 plan
Mixed Hearing Loss
sensorineural and conductive hearing loss IN THE SAME EAR
Treatment for Mixed Hearing Loss?
- always deal with conductive loss first
- surgery and/or amplification
What is CHL?
Conductive Hearing Loss
What is SNHL?
sensorineural hearing loss
3 other names for SNHL?
- acoustic nerve deafness
- retro cochlear deafness
- inner ear loss
Where does SNHL occur?
- 1. acoustic nerve
- 2. cochlea
- *or both nerve and cochlea
Cochlear hair cells respond to different pitches. Describe this.
- large end of the cochlea responds to high pitch sounds
- small end of cochlear responds to low pitch sounds
Fluctuating hearing loss is common with CHL or SNHL?
- Meniere's or Otitus Media
Unilateral vs. Bilateral Loss
1 sided vs. 2 sided
Symmetrical vs. Asymetrical hearing loss
- symetrical - same ear, same level & type of loss
- asymetrical - different level and/or type of loss
Flat vs. Sloping vs. Precipitous
- flat = same loss across the frequencies
- sloping = better in low frequencies and drops in high frequencies
- precipitous = looks like sloping hearing loss, then drops to profound loss
What does ototoxicity or otoxic do to the ear?
chemo damages the cilia in the inner/ear
What does an otoscopic measure?
a device family doctors and eaer doctors use to see outer and middle ear
What does a tympanogram measure?
- checks for CHLs
- checks the middle ear for sound to be transmitted from external ear to interal ear
- can determine fluid, wax, swelling blocking passage
- can determine perforation of eardrum or problems with the occicles
Contralateral on tympanogram
different hearing loss/damage on opposite ears/sides of head
Ipsilateral on tympanogram
same on both sides
Bone Conduction Testing bypasses what?
bypasses "blockage" in the middle ear by wax, fluid, swelling, faulty occicles
How does "pure tone bone conduction" testing work?
- a smal vibrator placed on temporal bone behind the ear (or on the forehead)
- bypasses the blockage,
- reaches the auditory nerve through vibration
Oto acoustic emissions
What does OAE test for?
tests for inner ear stimulation/cochlea
How does OAE work?
- a sound that cannot be heard by us...only by the cochlea
- the cochlea hairs are vibrated by this sound and then the sound echos back into the middle ear...
- this is how the sound can be measured by the probe inserted into the ear canal
- normal hearing produce emissions
- loss 25dB - 30 dB do not.
Where is an "air conduction" test done?
in a sound booth
What does an "air conduction" test measure?
faintest tones a person can hear at the targeted pitches/frequencies (low to high)
How is an "air conduction" test done on infants
- changes in their behavior are observed such as sucking a pacifier, quieting, searching for the sound
- rewarded for responses by watching an animated toy
How is "air conduction test"
- play response activities
- string a peg
- ring on stick
- drop in bucket
If you don't know a Deaf person's history, which ear do you test?
test right ear first
open ended questions (can be one word responses)
answers to pick from such as multiple choice
What is threshold of discomfort?
loudest tolerable sounds
Speech Reception Threshold
faintest level a person can hear & repeat 2-syllable words
- these are called spondees = have equal stress on each syllables
- hotdog, outside, ice cream, baseball, airplane
Speech Awareness Threshold
loudest speech a person can understand
What is frequency?
pitch of a sound
How are frequency/pitch measured?
How is loudness measured?
Define 5 broad ranges of hearing loss
- 0 - 20 dB normal
- 20 - 40 dB mild
- 40 - 60 dB moderate
- 60 - 80 dB severe
- 80+ dB profound
What are the 2 funky/less rigid HL ranges?
- 15-25 dB mild
- 50 - 70 dB moderate - severe loss
At what dB can you hear a whisper?
What dB is it hard to hear faint or distant speech?
At what dB is speech difficult to understand in group discussions?
At what dB are only environmental sounds being heard when within 1 foot?
Which can be heard at 70-90dB? vowels or consonants?
What does tone deaf mean?
cannot hear pitch of sounds