DHH & Audiology

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DHH & Audiology
2010-05-30 23:10:27
audiology hearing loss deaf hard hearing

NBPTS Exam Study Cards
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  1. What is etiology?
    cause/origin of a condition
  2. What does pre-lingual deafness mean?
    • deafness before language develops
    • deafness at birth
  3. What does peri-lingual deafness mean?
    • deafness while learning language
    • peri = near
  4. What does post-lingual deafness meaning?
    deafness after language already developed
  5. What is aural?
  6. What is oral?
  7. What does oto mean?
  8. What does otitus mean?
  9. What does externa mean?
    external ear
  10. What does media mean?
    middle ear
  11. What is an ENT?
    Ear, nose throat
  12. What is atresia?
    means no ear canal
  13. What is the eustachian tube?
    tube connecting the middle ear to the back of the nose and throat
  14. What are the ossicles?
    • 3 tiny bones of the middle ear
    • malleus or hammer
    • incus or anvil
    • stapes or stirrup
  15. What is otitus media?
    bacterial or viral infection of middle ear
  16. What is otoxic?
    • damage to the ear
    • caused by poison or toxins
  17. What is an Otolaryngologist specializing in?
    • ENT
    • diseases, anatomy & functions of ENT
  18. What is perception?
    processing information through senses
  19. What is auditory discrimination?
    ability to hear differences between sounds.
  20. What is auditory memory?
    ability to remember what is heard in a meaningful way.
  21. What are phonics?
    • study of speech sounds
    • as they relate to reading and speaking
  22. What is a phoneme?
    • smallest unit of sound
    • doesn't have meaning
  23. What is a morpheme?
    smallest linguistic unit of meaning
  24. What is nasality?
    • quality of speech sounds when
    • the nasal cavity is used as a resonator
  25. Where in the ear do Conductive Hearing Losses occur?
    outer to middle to inner ear interference
  26. What is the prognosis for Conductive Hearing Losses?
    • Pretty good chances of successful treatment
    • amplification most often works
    • surgery with tubes in the ears can work.
    • reconstructive surgery, prosthetic inserted to replace defect bone
  27. Interferences of Conductive Loss?
    • *any condition that interferes with transmission of sound waves to the inner ear
    • blockage of external ear canal to inner ear, ie., wax
    • swelling from infections
    • fluid in the eustachian tube blocks mobility of ear drum
    • problem with the ossicles bones - need reconstruction surgery or possible prosthetic inserted
  28. Central Hearing Loss
    • person functions as Deaf
    • *hears sounds but brain can't interpret meaning
    • neurofibromitosis = tumors (mostly adults)
    • Intervention = brain stem implant (FDA approved for adults only)
  29. Functional Hearing Loss
    • not hearing loss...emotional/psychological problem
    • intervention = therapy & educating the people around the patient
  30. Functional Hearing Loss = Difficult Environments
    • *think mom
    • multiple conversations
    • background noise such as radio, TV, vaccum, AC
    • misses first sentences in conversations
    • misses names of people when introduced
  31. Auditory Processing Disorder
    • functions as a hearing person
    • corpus callum (center of brain) does not communicate with both sides of the brain/ears
  32. How do states classify auditory processing?
    • learning disability or communication disorder
    • some won't do either....make them 504 with DHH 504 plan
  33. Mixed Hearing Loss
    sensorineural and conductive hearing loss IN THE SAME EAR
  34. Treatment for Mixed Hearing Loss?
    • always deal with conductive loss first
    • surgery and/or amplification
  35. What is CHL?
    Conductive Hearing Loss
  36. What is SNHL?
    sensorineural hearing loss
  37. 3 other names for SNHL?
    • acoustic nerve deafness
    • retro cochlear deafness
    • inner ear loss
  38. Where does SNHL occur?
    • 1. acoustic nerve
    • 2. cochlea
    • *or both nerve and cochlea
  39. Cochlear hair cells respond to different pitches. Describe this.
    • large end of the cochlea responds to high pitch sounds
    • small end of cochlear responds to low pitch sounds
  40. Fluctuating hearing loss is common with CHL or SNHL?
    • CHL
    • Meniere's or Otitus Media
  41. Unilateral vs. Bilateral Loss
    1 sided vs. 2 sided
  42. Symmetrical vs. Asymetrical hearing loss
    • symetrical - same ear, same level & type of loss
    • asymetrical - different level and/or type of loss
  43. Flat vs. Sloping vs. Precipitous
    • flat = same loss across the frequencies
    • sloping = better in low frequencies and drops in high frequencies
    • precipitous = looks like sloping hearing loss, then drops to profound loss
  44. What does ototoxicity or otoxic do to the ear?
    chemo damages the cilia in the inner/ear
  45. What does an otoscopic measure?
    a device family doctors and eaer doctors use to see outer and middle ear
  46. What does a tympanogram measure?
    • checks for CHLs
    • checks the middle ear for sound to be transmitted from external ear to interal ear
    • can determine fluid, wax, swelling blocking passage
    • can determine perforation of eardrum or problems with the occicles
  47. Contralateral on tympanogram
    different hearing loss/damage on opposite ears/sides of head
  48. Ipsilateral on tympanogram
    same on both sides
  49. Bone Conduction Testing bypasses what?
    bypasses "blockage" in the middle ear by wax, fluid, swelling, faulty occicles
  50. How does "pure tone bone conduction" testing work?
    • a smal vibrator placed on temporal bone behind the ear (or on the forehead)
    • bypasses the blockage,
    • reaches the auditory nerve through vibration
  51. OAE
    Oto acoustic emissions
  52. What does OAE test for?
    tests for inner ear stimulation/cochlea
  53. How does OAE work?
    • a sound that cannot be heard by us...only by the cochlea
    • the cochlea hairs are vibrated by this sound and then the sound echos back into the middle ear...
    • this is how the sound can be measured by the probe inserted into the ear canal
    • normal hearing produce emissions
    • loss 25dB - 30 dB do not.
  54. Where is an "air conduction" test done?
    in a sound booth
  55. What does an "air conduction" test measure?
    faintest tones a person can hear at the targeted pitches/frequencies (low to high)
  56. How is an "air conduction" test done on infants
    • changes in their behavior are observed such as sucking a pacifier, quieting, searching for the sound
    • rewarded for responses by watching an animated toy
  57. How is "air conduction test"
    • play response activities
    • string a peg
    • ring on stick
    • drop in bucket
  58. If you don't know a Deaf person's history, which ear do you test?
    test right ear first
  59. Open Set
    open ended questions (can be one word responses)
  60. Closed Set
    answers to pick from such as multiple choice
  61. What is threshold of discomfort?
    loudest tolerable sounds
  62. Speech Reception Threshold
    faintest level a person can hear & repeat 2-syllable words

    • these are called spondees = have equal stress on each syllables
    • hotdog, outside, ice cream, baseball, airplane
  63. Speech Awareness Threshold
    loudest speech a person can understand
  64. What is frequency?
    pitch of a sound
  65. How are frequency/pitch measured?
  66. How is loudness measured?
  67. Define 5 broad ranges of hearing loss
    • 0 - 20 dB normal
    • 20 - 40 dB mild
    • 40 - 60 dB moderate
    • 60 - 80 dB severe
    • 80+ dB profound
  68. What are the 2 funky/less rigid HL ranges?
    • 15-25 dB mild
    • 50 - 70 dB moderate - severe loss
  69. At what dB can you hear a whisper?
    10 dB
  70. What dB is it hard to hear faint or distant speech?
  71. At what dB is speech difficult to understand in group discussions?
    55-70 dB
  72. At what dB are only environmental sounds being heard when within 1 foot?
    70-90 dB
  73. Which can be heard at 70-90dB? vowels or consonants?
    vowells...think Ling's
  74. What causes tinnitus?
    • CNS
    • ringing in the ears
  75. What does tone deaf mean?
    cannot hear pitch of sounds