Respiratory Viruses

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Respiratory Viruses
2010-05-13 00:55:45
respiratory viruses microbiology

Respiratory Viruses: Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
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  1. Which of the follwing is FALSE about respiratory viruses?

    A. generally have a short incubation period
    B. respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is typically treated with neuraminidase inhibitors and M2-ion-channel blockers
    C. herpesvirus can be classified as a respiratory virus
    D. usually, increased mortality with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infection in the infirmed and elderly
    E. they are characterized by a seasonal occurrence and community epidemiology
    B. respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is typically treated with neuraminidase inhibitors and M2-ion-channel blockers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What are some common features of respiratory virus infection?
    • baceterial superinfection
    • person-to-person transmission
    • multiple infections with each virus
    • overlapping spectrum of diseases
    • short inucabation period (days)
    • world-wide distribution
    • seasonal
  3. What are the common viral causes of the common cold? What are the less common causes?
    • common: rhinovirus, coronavirus
    • less common: influenza, parainfluenza, enterovirus, adenovirus
  4. What are the common diagnostic tools used to detect respiratory viruses?
    • culture
    • antigen detection
    • nucleic acid detection (PCR)
    • serology
  5. What are the fundamental differences between antigenic shift and antigenic drift?
  6. What are the common viruses associated with "the flu"? What are the less common viral associations?
    • common: Influenza A or B
    • less common: parainfluenza, adenovirus
  7. Parainfluenza 1-3, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), measles virus, and human metapneumovirus are all part of which group of viruses? What is their genetic structure?
    • paramyxoviruses
    • (-)sense ssRNA
  8. True or False: Changing 2 positions in the HA (hemagglutin) receptor-binding domain (i.e. changing the receptor usage in the upper and lower respiratory tract) can enable avian influenza strains become transmissibe as a respiratory virus from person-to-person.
  9. What are some neuraminidase inhibitors and whare are they used to treat?
    • e.g. zanamavir
    • e.g. oseltamavir

    used to treat influenza
  10. What are some M2-ion-channel blockers and what are they used to treat?
    • e.g. amantadine
    • e.g. rimantadine (limited use because of resistance)

    used to treat influenza
  11. What are the common treatments for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)?
    • ribavirin
    • RSV-IGIV
    • monoclonal antibody (e.g. palivizumab)
  12. What are the single-stranded, (-) sense RNA respiratory viruses?
    • othomyxovirus (e.g. influenza A & B)
    • paramyxoviruses (e.g. parainfluenza 1-3, RSV, measles virus, human metapneumovirus)
    • Bunyavirus (e.g Hantavirus)
  13. What is Croup?
  14. What traits do ortho- and para-myxoviruses have in common?
    • respiratory pathogens
    • (-)sense, ssRNA
    • helical nucleocapsid
    • enveloped
    • bud from cell surface
  15. How do ortho- and para-myxoviruses differ?
    • genome segmentation
    • site of entry
    • primer requirement
    • site of RNA synthesis
    • rate of recombination
  16. Which respiratory viruses have animal repositories?
    • influenza A
    • coronavirus
  17. What are the common and uncommon respiratory viruses?
    • common:
    • (2)adenovirus
    • coronavirus
    • (3)rhinovirus/enterovirus
    • (1)RSV
    • parainfluenza virus
    • human metapneumovirus
    • influenza viruses
    • (4)human bocavirus (parvovirus) --> only an association with human disease

    • less common:
    • herpesviruses
    • hantavirus
    • reoviruses
    • enteroviruses
  18. What are the common and less common viral causes of Croup?
    • common: parainfluenza
    • less common: influenza, RS, adenovirus
  19. What are the common and less common viral causes of bronchiolitis?
    • common: RSV, human metapnumovirus
    • less common: influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus
  20. What are the common and less common viral causes of pneumonia?
    • common: influenza, adenovirus, RSV
    • less common: parainfluenza, measles, VZV, CMV