What Italian artist created a painting that shows Cicero, one of ancient Rome's greatest public speakers, addressing fellow members of the Roman Senate?
Who was one of ancient Rome's greatest public speakers?
What twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin princess founded the city of Rome in 753 B.C.?
Where were Romulus and Remus abandoned as infants only to be raised by a she-wolf?
What three groups inhabited the region on the Italian peninsula and battled for control?
On what one of its seven hills did the Latins build the original settlement at Rome?
What group of people were native to northern Italy and were skilled metalworkers and engineers?
What was the most famous temple and public center in Rome? It was the heart of Roman political life.
What harsh tyrant was the last king of Rome?
Tarquin the Proud
What does the Latin phrase res publica mean?
What is the term for a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders?
What were the wealthy landowners who held most of the power in Rome called?
What were the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population in Rome called?
What were elected representatives who protected the rights of the plebeians from unfair acts of patrician officials called?
What was a list of rules that was the basis of Roman legal system called?
What word comes from the Latin for "I forbid"?
What were two officials in Rome who commanded the army and directed the government called?
What was the aristocratic branch of Rome's government called?
What was the assembly organized by the plebeians that elected the tribunes and made laws for the common people called?
What was a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army called?
What were the large military units into which Roman soldiers were organized called?
What were the heavily armed foot soldiers called?
What were the group of soldiers on horseback called?
What term also means a multitude?
Legions were divided into smaller groups of 80 men, each of which was called what?
What city was once a colony of Phoenicia and was located on a peninsula on the North African coast?
What was the long struggle between Rome and Carthage called?
Where did Hannibal win his greatest victory?
What was the name of the 29-year-old Carthaginian general who was a brilliant military strategist that wanted to avenge Carthage's earlier defeat?
What was the name of Hannibal's father?
What Roman general devised a plan to attack Carthage?
In 202 B.C., where did the Roman defeat Hannibal?
What two brothers attempted to help Rome's poor? As tribunes, they proposed such reforms as limiting the size of estates and giving land to the poor.
What is a conflict between groups within the same country called?
In 60 B.C., what military leader joined forces with Crassus, a wealthy Roman, and Pompey, a popular general?
What two men did Julius Caesar join forces with to help him be elected consul?
What is the term for a group of three rulers?
What was the name of Julius Caesar's wife?
Who led the murder of Caesar, in which he was stabbed 23 times?
What is the term for a ruler that has total power?
What is the name of Caesar's grandnephew and adopted son?
With what two men did Octavian join forces?
What was the rule of Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus called?
Who did Mark Antony meet in Egypt and join forces with?
What title did Octavian eventually accept?
What is the term that means "supreme military commander"?
What word means "exalted one"?
What was the name of Augustus's only child?
What is the period of peace and prosperity in Rome called?
Pax Romana ("Roman peace")
What term refers to persons employed in the civil administration of government?
In Augustus's time, what silver coin was in use throughout the empire?
A person with the qualities of discipline, strength, and loyalty was said to have what important virtue?
What bad Roman emperor ruled from 37-41 and was mentally disturbed?
What bad emperor of Rome ruled from 54-68 and was vicious, murdered many, and persecuted Christians?
What bad Roman emperor ruled from 81-96 and ruled dictatorially, fearing treason everywhere and executing many?
What good Roman emperor ruled from 96-98 and began the custom of adopting heir?
What good Roman emperor ruled from 98-117 and undertook vast building program, enlarged social welfare, and the empire reached its greatest extent?
What good Roman emperor ruled from 117-138 and consolidated earlier conquests and reorganized the bureaucracy?
What good Roman emperor ruled from 138-161 and kept Rome a place of peace and prosperity?
What good Roman emperor ruled from 161-180 and brought empire to height of economic prosperity, defeated invaders, and wrote philosophy?
What were the powerful spirits or divine forces that the earliest Romans worshiped called?
What were the guardians of each Roman family called? They were closely related to numina.
Who was the father of the Roman gods?
What was the name of Jupiter's wife, who watched over women?
Who was the Roman goddess of wisdom and of the arts and crafts?
What was the huge arena in Rome that could hold 50,000 people called?
Much of what we know about Roman houses comes from archaeological excavations of what two ancient cities?
In A.D. 79, Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried in volcanic ash by a tremendous eruption of what volcano?
What is a painting made on damp plaster called?
What was the home of the Jews?
What savior would arrive and restore the kingdom of the Jews?
Sometime around 6 to 4 B.C., what Jew was born in Bethlehem in Judea?
What are the first four books of the New Testament of the Christian Bible called?
Where was Jesus raised?
Who baptized Jesus?
John the Baptist
What is the belief in only one god called?
What did the 12 men who were Jesus' disciples, or pupils, later come to be called?
What Roman governor accused Jesus of defying the authority of Rome?
What Greek word means "messiah" or "savior"?
What painting by Renaissance artist Raphael depicts Jesus calling the apostle Peter to duty as the other apostles look on?
Christ's Charge to Saint Peter
Who painted Christ's Charge to Saint Peter?
What apostle had enormous influence on Christianity's development? He was a Jew who had never met Jesus and at first was an enemy of Christianity. While traveling to Damascus in Syria, he reportedly had a vision of Christ.
What were the influential letters that Paul wrote to groups of believers called?
What were the common languages that allowed the message of Christianity to be easily understood?
What is the dispersal of Jews from their homeland called?
What are groups or individuals that innocently bear the blame for others called?
What were people willing to sacrifice their lives for the sake of a belief or cause called?
What Roman emperor was fighting three rivals for leadership of Rome when he prayed for help and then saw an image of a cross?
Where was the battle where Constantine was fighting his chief rival located?
What is a symbol of Christianity?
In what speech did Constantine declare Christianity to be one of the religions approved by the emperor?
Edict of Milan
In 380, what emperor made Christianity the official religion of the empire?
What is the term for a group of person organized in order of ranks, with each level subject to the authority of the one above?
What person, who was also a priest, supervised several local churches?
What apostle became the first bishop of Rome?
What is the father or head of the Christian Church called?
What is the term for any belief that appeared to contradict the basic teachings of the Church?
What do Christians called the Hebrew Bible?
What writing defined the basic beliefs of the Church?
What were several early writers and scholars who were also influential in defining Church teachings called?
Fathers of the Church
Who was one of the most important Fathers of the Church? He became bishop of the city of Hippo in North Africa in 396.
What is one of Augustine's most famous books that was written after Rome was plundered in the 5th century?
City of God
The end of the reign of what emperor marks the end of Pax Romana?
What is the term for a drastic drop in the value of money couple with a rise in prices?
What is the term for foreign soldiers who fought for money?
In A.D. 284, what strong-willed army leader became the new emperor? He ruled with an iron fist and severely limited personal freedoms while restoring order to the empire.
Into what two halves did Diocletian split the empire?
To what city did Constantine move the capital?
What name did Byzantium eventually take?
Around 370, what fierce group of Mongol nomads from central Asia moved into the region and began destroying all in their path?
What did Romans call all invaders? It was a term that they used to refer to non-Romans.
In 444, the Huns united for the first time under what powerful chieftain?
Who was the last Roman emperor? He was a 14-year-old boy that was ousted by German forces in 476.
What did the eastern half of the Roman empire come to be called?
The Byzantine Empire endured until 1453, when it fell to what group?
In the 1780s, what author published The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, in which he explained that a major cause of the collapse was that the empire was simply just too large?
What book did Edward Gibbons publish that explained that a major cause of the collapse was that the empire was simply just too large?
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
in 1986, what author published The Fall of the Roman Empire, in which he argues that the fall of Rome was a military collapse?
What book did Arther Ferrill write in which he argues that the fall of Rome was a military collapse?
The Fall of the Roman Empire
In 1967, what author published Roman Realities, in which his argues against the idea of a "fall"?
What book did Finley Hooper write in which he argues against the idea of a "fall"?
What early Church leader did not live to see the empire's end, but vividly describes his feelings after the Visigoths attacked Rome?
The mixing of elements of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture produced what new culture?
What type of sculpture is images projected from a flat background?
bas-relief (or low-relief)
What were pictures or designs made by setting small pieces of stone, glass, or tile onto a surface called?
What poet spend ten years writing the most famous work of Latin literature, the Aeneid, the epic of the legendary Aeneas?
Virgil spent ten years writing what epic of the legendary Aeneas?
What Indian epic tells the story of a battle for control of a mighty kingdom?
What Spanish epic celebrates a hero of the wars against the Moors?
In the 1200s, what man attempted to prove the existence of a single god using Aristotelian ideas?
In 1781, what philosopher wrote that Aristotle's theories on logic were still valid?
In 1922, who patterned his epic Ulysses after Homer's work?
In 1922, James Joyce patterned what epic after Homer's work?
In 2000, what Coen brothers' film brought a very different adaptation of the Odyssey to the big screen?
O Brother, Where Art Thou?
Who compiled a multivolume history of Rome from its origins to 9 B.C.?
What Roman historian is notable among ancient historians because he presented the facts accurately and was concerned about the Romans' lack of morality? He wrote Annals and Histories.
What two books did Tacitus write, in which he wrote about the good and bad of imperial Rome?
What was the language of the Romans?
What are languages who have Roman heritage called?
What were designed by Roman engineers to bring water into cities and towns?
What emperor started the construction of the Colosseum?
What sons of the Emperor Vespasian completed the construction of the Colosseum?
What was the retractable canvas awning that shielded spectators from the sun in the Colosseum called?
What historian has stated that Rome never fell because it turned into something even greater - an idea - and achieved immortality?