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  1. Ionic Bonds
    An electron is transferred from one atom to another
  2. Covalent Bonds 
    Pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
  3. s orbital
    An s orbital is spherical and symmetrical, and is centered around the nucleus. 
  4. p orbital
    A p orbital is composed of two lobes located symmetrically about the nucleus and contains a node

    A node is an area in which the probability of finding an electron is zero. 
  5. d orbital
    A d orbital is composed of four symmetrical lobes and contains two nodes. 
  6. Molecular Orbitals
    A. Single Bonds

    B. Double and Triple Bonds
  7. A. Single Bonds
    Two atomic orbitals can be combined to form what is called a molecular orbital (MO). 

    Molecular orbitals are obtained mathematically by adding the wave functions of the atomic orbitals. 

    If the signs of the wave functions are the same, a lower-energy bonding orbital is produced. If the signs are different, a higher-energy antibonding orbital is produced.

    All single bonds are sigma bonds, accommodating two electrons. Shorter single bonds are stronger than longer single bonds. 
  8. B. Double and Triple Bonds
    When two p orbitals overlap in a parallel fashion, a bonding MO is formed, called a pi bond. 

    When both a sigma and a pi bond exist between two atoms, a double bond is formed. 

    When a sigma bond and two pi bonds exist, a triple bond is formed.
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2013-01-03 22:58:54

MCAT OChem Bonding
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