What are the acid and base definitions for the Bronsted-Lowry Model?
Acids are H+ donors
Bases are H+ acceptors
What is self ionization?
When water molecules react to form a hydronium ion (H3O+) and a hydroxide ion
What are the physical properties of acids and bases?
Acids are sour and sticky (ex. lemon juice)
Bases are bitter and slippery (ex. soap)
What are the chemical properties of acids and bases?
Causes litmus paper to change color
Does an acidic solution contain more H+ or OH-?
In ionization, water produces how much H+ and OH- ions?
What are acids and bases defined as for the Lewis Model?
Acids are electron-pair acceptors
Bases are electron-pair donors
What are acids and bases defined as for the Arrhenius Model?
Acids are H+ producers
Bases are OH- producers
What is a conjugate acid?
the species produced when a base accepts a hydrogen ion
What is a conjugate base?
the species that results when an acid donates a hydrogen ion
What is a conjugate acid-base pair?
It consists of two substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single hydrogen ion
What does amphoteric mean? What is an example of something that can be amphoteric?
Substances that can act as both acids and bases; water
What are strong acids? Why are they good conductors of electricity?
Acids that ionize completely; because they produce the maximum number of ions
What is a weak acid?
An acid that ionizes only partially in dilute aqueous solution
What is the acid ionization constant?
the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a weak acid
What does Ka indicate?
whether reactants or products are favored at equilibrium
What is a strong base?
A base that dissociates entirely into metal ions and hydroxide ions
What is a weak base?
Ionizes only partially in dilute aqueous solution
What is the base ionization constant?
The value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a base.
The ______ the value of Kb, the weaker the base
What does Kb indicate?
base ionization constant
What is the ion product constant for water?
What is it's formula?
Kw, or the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the self-ionization of water
What is pH?
What is it's formula?
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
What is pOH?
What is it's formula?
The negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration
What does [H+] represent?
What does [OH-] represent?
What is the relationship between pH and pOH that makes it easy to calculate either quantity if the other is known?
pH + pOH = 14.00
At 298 K, acidic solutions have pH balues (>,<,=)______.
At 298 K, acidic solutions have pH values less than 7.
A solution with a pH of 0.0 is strongly _______; a solution with a pH of 14.0 is strongly _____.
At 298 K, a solution with a pOH (<,>,=) _____ is basic
At 298 K, a solution with a pOH less than 7.0 is basic
A solution with a pOH of 7.0 is _____
A solution with a pOH greated than 7.0 is _______
How do you calculate Ka from pH?
Use the example problem to calculate: Formic acid is used to process latex tapped from rubber trees into natural rubber. The pH of a 0.100M solution of formic acid (HCOOH) is 2.38. What is Ka for HCOOH?
Write the equation for pH. Multiply both sides by -1 and take the antilog of each side. Substitute pH = 2.38. A calculator shows that the antilog of -2.38 is 4.2 x 10^3. Subtract [H+] from the initial [HCOOH]. State the acid ionization constant expression. Substitute [H+] = 4.2 x 10^-3M, and [HCOOH] = 0.096M.
= 1.8 x 10^-4
What is a neutralization reaction?
A reaction in which an acid and a base in an aqueous solution react to produce a salt and a water
What is a salt?
An ionic compound made up of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid
What kind of reaction is Neutralization?
What is titration?
A method for determining the concentration of a solution by reacting a known volume of that solution with a solution of known concentration
What is a titrant?
the titrating solution of known concentration. AKA the standard solution
What is the equivalence point?
the point at which moles of H+ ion from the acid equal moles of OH- ion from the base
What is an end point of a titration?
The point at which the indicator used in a titration changes color
How do you solve Molarity from Titration data?
Use the example problem to calculate: A volume of 18.28 mL of a standard solution of 0.1000M NaOH was required to neutralize 25.00 mL of a solution of methanoic acid (HCOOH). What is the molarity of the methanoic acid solution?
Write the acid to base mole relationship. Convert volume of a base from mL to L. Apply the relationship between moles of base, molarity of base, and volume of base. Substitute Mb = 0.1000M and Vb = 0.01828 L. Apply the stoichiometric relationship. Apply the relationship between moles of acids, molarity of acid, and volume of acid. Solve for Ma. Convert volume of acid from mL to L. Substitute Va = 0.02500 L.
Ma = 7.312 x 10^-2 mol/L.
What is salt hydrolysis?
When the anions of the dissociated salt accept hydrogen ions from water or the cations of the dissociated salt donate hydrogen ions to water
What is a buffer?
Solutions that resist changes in pH when limited amounts of acid or base are added
What is the buffer capacity?
The amount of acid or base a buffer solution can absorb without a significant change in pH
Can acids or bases react with certain metals?
does an acid or a base contain more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions?
does an acid or a base react with carbonates?
The Arrhenius model of acids and bases states that an acid contains ______ and forms ions of this element when it is dissolved in water.
According the the Arrhenius model of acids and bases, a base contains the ______ group and dissociates to produce _______ ions in aqueous solution.
According the the _________ model, an acid _____ hydrogen ions and a ____ accepts hydrogen ions.
Bronsted-Lowry; donates; base
According to the Bronsted-Lowry model, in an acid-base reaction, each acid has a ________ and each base has a _____.
conjugate base; conjugate acid
Acid G and acid F are of equal concentration and are tested weith a conductivity apparatus. When the electrodes are placed in acid G, the bulb glows dimly. When they are placed in acid F, the bulb glows more brightly. Which acid is stronger?
A chemical equation for the ionization of an acid uses a single arror the the right to separate the reactant and product sides of the equation. Is the ionizing acid strong or weak?
Sulfuric acid is a strong acid. what does this tell you about its conjugate base?
it is weak
in a solution, a weak acid produces...
a mixture of molecules and ions
Why are Ka values all small numbers?
The solutions contain a high concentration of un-ionized acid molecules
In general, compounds formed from active metals, and hydroxide ions are: (strong acids or bases or weak acids or bases)
Write the simplest form of the chemical equation for the self-ionization of water
H2O<-->(thats supposed to be a double arrow)[H+][OH-}
write the equilibrium constant expression, Keq< for the equation H2O <---->(double arrow) [H+][OH-]
write the expression for the equilibrium constant for water, Kw
Kw <--->(double arrow)[H+][OH-]
why can the concentration of water be ignored in the equilibrium expression for water?
it stays constant
what is the numerical value of Kw at 298K?
1.0 x 10^-14
In a solution, if the hydroxide ion concentration increases, what happens to the hydrogen ion concentration?
if the concentration of hydroxide ions in solution is 1.0 x 10^-6, what is the hydrogen ion concentration?
1.0 x 10^-8
14.6 = 8
the pH of a solution is the negative lagarithm of its ____ ion concentration
values for pH range from _____
0 to 14
stomach contents can have a pH of 2, which means that they are ____
the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution with a pH of 3 is ___ times greater than the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution with a pH of 5
the pH of a ______ solution at room temperature equals the pOH of the solution
the pH of a solution with a [H+] of 1 x 10^-8 is what?
What is the pH of a 4.3 x 10^-2M HCl solution? HCl is a strong acid
-Log(4.3 x 10^-2) = 1.37
calculate the pH of a 5.2 x 10^-3M H2SO4 solution? H2SO4 is a strong acid
-Log(5.2 x 10^-3) = 2.3
what is the pH of a 2.5 x 10^-5M NaOH solution? NaOH is a strong base
-Log(2.5 x 10^-5) = 9.4
calculate the pH of a 3.6 x 10^-6M Ca(OH)2 solution. Ca(OH)2 is a strong base
-Log(3.6 x 10^-6) = 8.85
indicator paper can be used to measure the _____ of a solution
What is a chemical dye that changes color based on the pH of a solution?
What is a method for using a neutralization reaction to determine the concentration of a solution?
What is a reaction in which an acid and a base react to produce a salt and water
what is a solution of a known concentration
what is an ionic product of an acid-base reaction
what is the point in a titration in which an indicator changes color
what is the stoichiometric point of a titration
____ resist change in pH
a ____ can be a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base