Chemistry II Exam 2

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191148
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Chemistry II Exam 2
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2013-01-14 19:36:10
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Organic compounds
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Chemistry II Exam 2 Organic compounds 2
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  1. Those alkanes that have one or more hydrogen atoms replaced by a member of the halogen group.
    • Alkyl Halides
    • or
    • Haloalkanes
  2. they have the general formula - RX
       where:
          R = a chain of carbons
          X = a halogen
    • Alkyl Halides
    • or
    • Haloalkanes
  3. Alkanes typically undergo substitution or replacement reactions
    • Alkyl Halides
    • or
    • Haloalkanes
  4. when one of the hydrogens is replaced with Chlorine in the compound methane, we are left with the following
    •     |
    • -  C - Cl
    •     |

    • Methyl chloride
    • or
    • Chloromethane
  5.   Cl
       |
    - C - Cl
       |
    • Methyl dichloride
    • or
    • Dichloromethane
    • or
    • Methylene chloride
  6.       Cl
          |
    Cl - C - Cl
          |
    • Methyl trichloride
    • or
    • Trichloromethane
    • or
    • Chloroform
  7.      Cl
          |
    Cl - C - Cl
          |
         Cl
    • Methyl tetrachloride
    • or
    • Tetrachloromethane
    • or
    • Carbon tetrachloride
    • or
    • Carbon tet

    once commonly used as a solvents refrigerent & in fire extinguisher
  8. Derivatives of hydrocarbons in which at least one of the hydrogens has been replaced by a hydroxide group
    alcohols
  9. hydroxide group
    functional group for alcohols

    -OH
  10. a particular arrangement of a few atoms that gives an organic molecule certain characteristic properties
    functional group
  11. general formula for the alcohols
    • ROH
    •   R = a chain of carbons
    •   OH = this class' functional group
  12. alcohol IUPAC name ending
    -ol
  13. for alcohols, replace the "e" ending of an alkane with
    -ol
  14. the alcohol derived from methane is
    methanol
  15. the alcohol derived from ethane is
    ethanol
  16. alcohols can be classified in two ways:
    • 1. according to the number of hydroxide groups present
    • 2. according to the position of the hydroxide group
  17. those alcohols that contain only one hydroxide group
    monohydric alcohols
  18. monohydric alcohols are subdivided to the position of the hydroxide group
    • Primary alcohol
    • Secondary alcohol
    • Tertiary alcohol
  19. a monohydric alcohol in which the hydroxide group is attached to a carbon which in turn is attached to no more than one other carbon
    Primary alcohol
  20. the hydroxide is attached to an end carbon
    Primary alcohol
  21. these are formed by the oxidation of an alkane on an end carbon
    Primary alcohol
  22. Primary alcohol
       |
    - C - OH
       |
    • Methanol
    • or
    • Methyl alcohol
    • or
    • Hydroxymethane
    • or
    • wood alcohol
    • or
    • Carbinol
  23. Primary alcohol
       |      |
    - C - C - OH
       |      |
    • Ethanol
    • or
    • Ethyl alcohol
    • or
    • Hydroxyethane
    • or
    • grain alcohol
  24. Primary alcohol
        |     |      |
    - C - C - C - OH
        |     |     |
    • 1-propanol
    • or
    • 1-propylalcohol
    • or
    • 1-hydroxypropane
  25. a monohydric alcohol in which the hydroxide group is attached to a carbon which in turn is attached to two other carbons
    Secondary alcohol
  26. the hydroxide group (OH) is attached to an INNER carbon
    Secondary alcohol
  27. formed by the oxidation of an alkane on an INNER carbon
    Secondary alcohol
  28. for there to be an inner carbon there must be at least three
    Secondary alcohol
  29. Secondary alcohol
           OH
       |      |     |
    - C - C - C -
        |     |     |
    • 2-propanol
    • or
    • 2-propyl alcohol
    • or
    • 2-hydroxypropane
    • or
    • isopropanol
    • or
    • isopropylalcohol
    • or
    • IPA
    • or
    • rubbing alcohol
  30. a monohydric alcohol in which the hydroxide group is attached to a carbon which in turn is attached to three other carbons
    Tertiary alcohol
  31. Tertiary alcohol
            OH
       |      |     |
    - C - C - C -
       |      |     |
          - C -
              |
    • 2-methyl-2-hydroxy propane
    • or
    • Tert-butyl alcohol
  32. those alcohols that contain two hydroxide groups
    Dihydric alcohols
  33. as a group they are refered to as the glycols
    Dihydric alcohols
  34. this group is commonly used in embalming fluids as humectants
    Dihydric alcohols
  35. Dihydric alcohols
     OH
       |
    - C - OH
       |
    • Methanediol
    • or
    • Dihydroxymethane
    • or
    • Methylene glycol
  36. Dihydric alcohols
            OH
       |      |
    - C - C -
       |      |
             OH
    • 1,1-ethanediol
    • or
    • 1,1-dihydroxyethane
  37. Dihydric alcohols
     OH  OH
       |      |
    - C - C -
       |      |
    • 1,2-ethanediol
    • or
    • 1,2-dihydroxyethane
    • or
    • Ethylene glycol

    a common substance in anti-freeze
  38. those alcohols that contain three hydroxide groups
    Trihydric alcohols
  39. Trihydric alcohols
     OH  OH  OH
        |     |      |
    - C - C - C -
        |     |      |
    • 1,2,3-propanetriol
    • or
    • 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane
    • or
    • Glycerol
    • or
    • Glycerine

    it's used as a humectant (moisture retainer)

    it helps to facilitate the solubility and perfusion of formaldehyde
  40. those alcohols that contain many hydroxide groups
    Polyhydric alcohols
  41. Polyhydric alcohols
      OH OH OH OH OH OH
        |     |      |     |     |      |
    - C - C - C - C - C - C -
        |     |      |     |      |     |
    • 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanehexaol
    • or
    • 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydroxyhexane
    • or
    • 1,2,3,4,5,6-polyhydroxyhexane
    • or
    • sorbitol

    commonly used humectant in embalming fluids
  42. organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group on an end carbon
    aldehydes
  43. a carbonyl group is a carbon with a double bonded oxygen
    aldehydes
  44. O
     ||
    C
    this is the functional group for the aldehydes

    it's what makes an aldehyde an aldehyde
  45. compounds that result from the partial oxidation of a primary alcohol
    aldehydes
  46. oxidation occurs at the location of the hydroxide group on the alcohol
    aldehydes
  47. the general formula for the aldehydes
    • RCHO
    •    where:
    •          R = a chain of carbons
    •          CHO = this class' functional group
  48. the aldehydes characterisitc IUPAC name ending is
    -al
  49. replace the "ol" ending of the alcohol name with al
    aldehydes
  50. the aldehyde derived from methanol
    •      O
    •      ||
    • H - C - H

    • methanal
    • or
    • methylaldehyde
    • or
    • formaldehyde
    • or
    • oxymethylene
  51. the aldehyde derived from ethanol
    •   O      H
    •    \\      |
    •     C - C - H
    •     /      |
    •    H     H

    • Ethanal
    • or
    • Ethylaldehyde
    • or
    • Acetaldehyde

    this is a toxin produced by the metabolism of grain alcohol that causes many of the symptoms of a hangover
  52. those aldehydes characterized by carbonyl groups at both ends of the chain
    dialdehydes
  53. dialdehydes IUPAC name ending
    -dial
  54. dialdehydes
      O     H    H   H      O
       \\    |    |    |     //
        C - C - C - C - C
        /    |     |    |     \ 
      H     H    H   H       H
    • 1,5-pentanedial
    • Glutaraldehyde

    a very commonly used disinfectant

    can also be used as a preservative
  55. known as ORGANIC ACIDS
    carboxylic acids
  56. organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group on an end carbon
    carboxylic acids
  57. a carbon with a double bonded oxygen and a hydroxide group
    carboxylic acids

    •  O              the functional group for the carboxylic acids
    •  ||
    •  C - OH     it's what makes them what they are
  58. compounds that result from the complete oxydation of an aldehyde
    carboxylic acids
  59. oxidation occurs on the same carbon where the double bonded oxygen of the aldehyde is attached
    carboxylic acids
  60. the general formula for the carboxylic acids
    • RCOOH
    •     where:
    •         R = a chain of carbons
    •         COOH = this class' functional group
  61. the characteristic IUPAC name ending for carboxylic acids
    -oic plus the word "acid"
  62. replace the "al" ending of the aldehyde name with oic and add the word "acid"
    carboxylic acids
  63. the carboxylic acid derived from methanal
    •      O
    •      ||
    • H - C - OH

    • methanoic acid
    • or
    • formic acid
  64. the carboxylic acid derived from ethanal
    • O      H
    •  \\      |
    •    C - C - H
    •   /       |
    • OH      H

    • ethanoic acid
    • or
    • acetic acid

    a major compound of vinegar
  65. organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group on an inner carbon
    ketones
  66. a carbon with a double bonded oxygen
    a carbonyl group
  67. O
    ||
    C
    the functional group for the ketones as well as aldehydes

    it's what makes them what they are
  68. compounds that result from the complete oxidation of a secondary alcohol
    ketones
  69. oxidation occurs at the location of the hydroxide group on the alcohol
    ketones
  70. the general formula for the ketones
    • RCOR
    •      where:
    •             R = a chain of carbons
    •             CO = this class' functional group
  71. the characteristic ketone IUPAC name ending
    -one
  72. for ketones replace the "ol" ending of the alcohol name with
    "-one"
  73. the ketone derived from 2-propanol is
    •        O
    •    |   ||   |
    • - C - C - C -
    •   |          |

    • propanone
    • or
    • Dimethyl ketone
    • or
    • Acetone

    the most commonly used organic solvent
  74. Alkane Oxidation

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