Medic14HistologyCh4

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andrewlevino
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191176
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Medic14HistologyCh4
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2013-01-12 04:04:42
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Histology Medic 14
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Histology
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  1. Histology
    Study of tissues
  2. Four Basic Types of Tissues
    Epithelial, connective, muscle and neural
  3. Epithelial Tissue
    Includes epithelia and glands. Epithelia are layers of cells that cover internal or external surfaces. Glands are composed of secreting cells derived from epithelia. Four basic functions: provide physical protection, control permeability, provide sensation and produce specialized secretions.
  4. Exocrine
    Secretions that are discharged onto the surface of the epithelium. Ex: enzymes within digestive tract, perspiration on the skin, and milk produced in mammary glands. 
  5. Endocrine
    Secretions that are released into the surrounding tissue fluid and blood. These secretions are called hormones and act as chemical messengers and regulate or coordinate the activities of other tissues, organs and organ systems. Mainly produced in organs such as pancreas, thyroid and pituitary gland. 
  6. Cell Adhesion Molecules and Intercellular Cement
    CAM's and Intercellular Cement (a protein-polysaccharide mixture) are specialized transmembrane proteins that form effective barriers in undamaged epithelia
  7. Tight Junction
    The lipid layers of adjacent cell membranes are tightly bound together by interlocking membrane proteins. Ex: lining of stomach to keep contents from damaging underlying tissue
  8. Gap Junction
    Two cells are held together by embedded membrane proteins. THey are channel proteins, forming a narrow passageway that lets small molecules and ions pass from cell to cell. Most abundant in cardiac muscle and smooth muscle tissue.
  9. Desmosome
    The cell membranes of two cells are locked together by intercellular cement and by membrane proteins connected to a network of intermediate filaments. Abundant between cells in the superficial layers of the skin.
  10. Classifying Epithelia
    • Simple- secretions or absorption 
    • Stratified- protection
  11. Merocrine Secretion
    Most common mode of secretion. The product is released from secretory vesicles by exocytosis. Ex: Mucus
  12. Apocrine Secretion
    Involves the loss of both cytoplasm and the secretory product. The outermost portion of the cytoplasm becomes packed with secretory vesicles before it is shed. Ex: Milk from mammary glands
  13. Holocrine Secretion
    Entire cell becomes packed with secretions and then bursts apart and dies. Ex: sebaceous glands.
  14. Serous glands
    Secrete a watery solution that contains enzymes. Ex: parotid salivary gland
  15. Mucous Glands
    Secrete mucins that form a thick, slippery mucus. Ex: sublingual salivary gland
  16. Functions of Connective Tissue
    • Support and protection. Ex: Bone
    • Transportation of materials. Ex: Blood
    • Storage of energy reserves. Ex: Adipose cells
    • Defense of the body. Ex: Antibody production
  17. Connective Tissue Proper
    Consists of many types of cells and fibers within a matrix that conns a syrupy ground substance. Ex: tendons and ligaments
  18. Fluid Connective Tissue
    Distinctive population of cells suspended in a matrix of water ground substance that contains dissolved proteins. Ex: blood and lymph
  19. Supporting Connective Tissue
    Less diverse cell population than connective tissue proper and a matrix of dense ground substance and closely packed fibers. Ex: cartilage and bone
  20. Fibroblasts
    Most abundant cells in CTP. Produce and maintain the connective tissue fibers and ground substance.
  21. Macrophages
    Scattered throughout the matrix. 'Big eaters' that phagocytize damaged cells or pathogens that enter the tissue. Also release chemicals that mobilize the immune system. 
  22. Fat Cells
    Also called adipocytes. Contain such a large droplet of lipid that nucleus and organelles are squeezed to one side of the cell. 
  23. Mast Cells
    Small, mobile connective tissue cells often found near blood vessels. Cytoplasm is packed with vesicles filled with chemicals that are released to begin the body's defensive activities after and injury or infection.
  24. Collagen Fibers
    Long, straight and unbranched that form strong but flexible fibers. Are the most common fiber in connective tissue proper. 
  25. Elastic Fibers
    Contain the protein elastin. Branched and wavy and after stretching will return to original length. 
  26. Reticular Fibers
    Least common of connective tissue fibers. Thinner than collagen fibers and commonly form a branching, interwoven framework in various organs. 
  27. Ground Substance
    Similar in consistency to maple syrup found in interstitial space. Dense consistency slows the movement of bacteria and other pathogens. 
  28. Difference Between Loose and Dense Connective Tissue
    Loose: Least specialized CT in body. Forms a layer that separates the skin from underlying muscles, and provides both padding and a considerable amount of independent movement. 

    Dense: Consist mostly of collagen fibers. Collagen fibers are parallel to each other, packed tightly, and aligned with the forces applied to the tissue. Ex: tendons and ligaments. 
  29. Adipose Tissue
    Loose connective tissue that contains large numbers of adipocytes. Provides another source of padding and shock absorption for the body. 
  30. Fluid Connective Tissue
    Blood and lymph are FCT's that contain distinctive collections of cells in a fluid matrix. In blood, the watery matrix is called plasma. 
  31. Supporting Connective Tissue
    Bone and cartilage
  32. Catilage
    Avascular matrix containing embedded fiber. Chondrocytes, which are the only cells found in the matrix, live in small pockets known as lacunae. 
  33. Types of Cartilage
    Hyaline Cartilage: Most common type of cartilage. Tough but somewhat flexible. Ex: connects ribs to sternum, keeps trachea open and covers bone surfaces within joints. 

    Elastic Cartilage: Extremely resilient and flexible. Ex: Forms external flap of the outer ear, the epiglottis and an airway to the middle ear. 

    Fibrocartilage: Dominated by collagen fibers. Resist compression, absorb shocks and prevent damaging bone-to-bone contact. Ex: Lie between the vertebrae in the spinal column, between the pubic bones in the pelvis and around or within a few joints and tendons. 
  34. Bone
    Matrix of bone consists mainly of hard calcium compounds and flexible collagen fibers. Composed of osteocytes. Diffusion cannot occur through the bony matrix; cytoplasmic extensions provide osteocytes with nutrients.
  35. Mucous Membranes
    Also called mucosae. Line cavities that communicate with the exterior including the digestive, respiratory, reproductive and urinary tracts. 
  36. Serous Membrane
    Line the sealed, internal subdivisions of the ventral body cavity. Three types: pleura, peritoneum and pericardium. Parietal lines inside of cavity, visceral lines outside. 
  37. Cutaneous Membrane
    Skin. Consists of stratified squamous epithelium and the underlying dense connective tissue. 
  38. Synovial Membranes
    Consists primarily of loose connective tissue and an incomplete layer of epithelial tissue. Lines joint cavity in joints that allow free movement. THe synovial fluid helps lubricate the joint and permits smooth movement. 
  39. Skeletal Muscle
    Large and have prominent striations, multiple nuclei, and an unbranched arrangement.
  40. Cardiac Muscle
    Smaller than skeletal fibers, branching and typically mononucleated.
  41. Smooth Muscle
    Small and spindle-shaped, have a central nucleus and lack branches or striations. 
  42. Neural Tissue
    Two basic types: neurons and neuroglia, or supporting cells.
  43. Neuroglia
    Provide physical support for neural tissue, maintain the chemical composition of the tissue fluids, supply nutrients to neurons, and defend the tissue from infection.
  44. Tissue Repair
    Consists of two steps: inflammation and regeneration.

    Inflammation: Area is isolated from neighboring healthy tissue while damaged cells, tissue components, and any dangerous microorganisms are cleaned up. 

    Regeneration: Tissue is replaced or repaired to restore normal function. 

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