is committed when the conclusion of an argument depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from the parts of something onto the whole
each atom in this piece of chalk is invisible so the chalk is invisible
reverse of composition
is committed when the conclusion of an argument depends of the erronious transference of an attribute from the whole (or a class) onto it's parts (or members)
a fallacy in which a person applies standards, principles, rules, etc. to others while proposing that he (or those he has a special interest in) should be exempt, without providing adequate justification for the exemption.
"Barbara accepts that all murderers should be punished for their crimes. Although she murdered Bill, Barbara claims she is an exception because she really would not like going to prison. Therefore, the standard of punishing murderers should not be applied to her."