# Logic~Fallacies

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1. Appeal to Unqualified Authority
• claim made by someone unqualified to make that particular claim
2. Appeal to Ignorance
• Argumentum an Ignorantiam
• "It's so because no-one can disprove it"
3. Hasty Generalization
• Converse Accident
• to generalize from a small example
4. Fallacy of Accident
• Dicto Simpliciter
• Sweeping Generalization
5. Non Causa Pro Causa
• premise does not follow conclusion
• the argument mistakes the cause for the effect
6. Reversing Cause and Effect
The argument asserts a-->b when causally b--->a or a-->b-->a they feed off of eachother
7. post hoc, ergo proptor hoc
• after this therefore on account of this
• the fallacy presupposes just because one event precedes another event the first event is the cause of the second
8. Oversimplified Cause
occurs when a multitude of causes is responsible for a certain effect but the arguer selects just one of these causes and represents it as if it were the sole cause
9. Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
asserts a is a cause and only cause of b, a is a necessary cause of b~assumes only one way a can cause b
10. Slippery Slope
• The Thin End of the Wedge, The Camel's Nose, The Fallacy of the Beard, The Domino Fallacy
• A-->B-->C-->D D is really bad and will come if A, A caused of D is to tenuous to be credible
11. Weak Analogy
the analogy is not strong enough to support the conclusion
12. Appeal to Force
13. Appeal to Fear
14. Appeal to Pity
15. Appeal to Spite
16. Appeal to the People
• everybody is doing it
17. Bandwagon Argument
Mob Appeal
18. Appeal to Vanity, Snobbery, Pride, Success or Wealth
if you A you will be beautiful, higher class, great, succuessful, or wealthy
Argument Against the Person
attacks the speaker
attacks the speakers motives ~ "Of course he wants it he will earn a fortune off of it"
attacking hypocracy ~ "well you do it too"
23. Poisoning the Well
discrediting the speaker before the argument is given
24. Genetic Fallacy
attacking the origin of the argument
25. Missing the Point
• Ignoratio Elenci
• draw a conclusion that doesn't follow the premise or the conclusion is very broad
26. Straw Man
taking the argument to the extreme and then attacking the extreme argument
27. Red Herring
avoiding the initial argument going off on a different but some what related topic
28. Begging the Question
• Petitio Principii, Vicious Circle
• the wuestion presupposes you already accept the conclusion
29. False Dichotomy
• Bifurcation, False Dilemma, Black-and-White Fallacy, Either/Or Fallacy
• Illigetimate inference in either/or
• either you A or something really bad will happen
30. Equivocation
• a play on words having different meanings
• based on a single term
31. Amphiboly
misinterpreting meanings 'slow deaf child area'
32. Composition
• is committed when the conclusion of an argument depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from the parts of something onto the whole
• each atom in this piece of chalk is invisible so the chalk is invisible
33. Division
• reverse of composition
• is committed when the conclusion of an argument depends of the erronious transference of an attribute from the whole (or a class) onto it's parts (or members)