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general description of Acute Colitis
sudden inflammation of the colon (large bowel) caused by parasites, viral or bacterial infections, foreign material, stress and food allergy intollerance.
name the cls of acute colitis
vary from mild to severe, include diarrhea, blood and mucous in stool straining and painful elimination resistance to walk abdominal pain and dehydration
dx acute colitis
- top 3
- difficult to dx
- lab tests and radiographs
tx of acute colitis
- withholding food followed by proper diet
- follow vets instructions
- also follow vets instructions on water intake
general information on acute gastritis
- rapid onset of inflammation of the stomach, usually related to a diet issue such as eating from garbage or a foreign object, chemicals.
- can also be caused by viral or bacterial infections food allergys and parasites.
cls of actute gastritis
sudden onset of frequent vomiting is most common, followed by anorexia lethargy dehydration abdominal pain and polydipsia. Vomiting may or may not contain blood the pet may apear restless in pain or bloated.
dx of acute gastritis
- top 3
- radiographs if a foreign object is suspected to be the cause
tx of acute gastritis
treatment depends on the severity of the symptoms and also mainly symptomatic. hospitalization may be needed however for fluid treatment in extreme cases.
general information on acute pancreatitis
sudden inflammation of the pancreas, serious condition most commonly occuring in over weight middle aged dogs but may occur in any dog. acute pancreatitis can lead to shock and death. most commonly occurs when the glands normal defences have been overcome by more precipitating factors.
causes of acute pancreatitis
eating large amounts of fat, high fat diet, obesity, inactivity, infection, blockage of the pancreatic duct,injury, trauma, or certain medications, however cause is not always indentified.
what other secondary condtions can occur because of acute pancretitis?
diabetes mel, pancreatic insufficiency, (causing digestive problems), internal abscessation (infeection) of liver disease
cls of acute pancreatitis
- tenderness and pain on abdominal palpation
dx of actute pancreatitits
- clinical findings
- lab tests
tx of acute pancreatitis
hospitilization due to the lack of ability to keep medications and food down. the pancreas must be able to rest to heal. the pet may need a specific diet for life but in most cases the severity of the condtion will dictate the treatment
general information on anal gland disease
when the glands become blocked due to infection lack of exercise and occasionally due to foreign material so that the secreations cannot escape. this causes irritation swelling and pain for the pet and the common term "scooting " swelling will occur when a infection has set in
where are the anal glands located?
just below each side of the anus at 4 and 8 o clock
cls of anal gland disease
yelping when sitting, tail chasing,dragging or scooting, excessive licking and swollen area on either side of the anus
general information on antifreeze poisoning
ethylene glycol is a chemical found in antifreeze it is colourless, odourless and sweet tasting, it causes sevear and fatal poisoning. Promt treatment is vital as it may cause kidney damage
explain how the ethylene glycol affects the body
the chemical is toxic when it is metabolised by the liver and kidneys it then turns into toxic metabolites which affect the CNS kidneys and lungs. It is then changed to oxalic acid which combines with calcium in the blood to form complex. Compled is then deposited in the kidneys resulting in cell damage loss of kidney function and finally death
cls of antifreeze poisoning
- weak trembling convulsing
- anorexia ataxia disorientation
- less frequent urination
- hematuria anuria
dx of antifreeze poisoning
- difficult to distinguish if the pet hasnt been seen drinking the antifreeze.
- top 3 lab tests and in house test kit
- animal needs tx without 1-12 hours
treatment of antifreeze poisoning
- depends on amount digested
- iv fluids, hospitalization
- a mixture of 20% alcohol and saline solution
- px will depend on how promptly they were treated
general information on arthritis
inflammation of the joint, can cause fever and redness over the joint causes of the disease include degeneration from aging, infection, inherited arthritis, injury, blood disease, allergic or immune mediated disease and cancers
cls of arthritis
- lameness and discomfort
- painful stiff joint movement
- grating sensation in the joint (crepitus)
- top 3
- may need joint tap and blood work
tx of arthritis
- controllable rather than curable
- depending on type of arthritis vet may use steroids
- weight loss if overweight
- exercise per instructions
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (IMHA) explain in a paragraph what it is, cls , tx and causes
- IMHA is when the animals own immune system malfunctions causing the body to be unable to recognise its own red blood cells causing life threatening anemia. This can be caused by infection, cancer or other disease aswell as drug reactions and genetic causes.
- cls inculude no energy, pale MM, feel cold, seak out heat, spleen enlargment. To treat based on cause, blood transfusions, medications such as anti cancer drugs and removal of spleen.
Bone tumors, paragraph.
- bone tumors are cancerous tumors of the bone, can be malignant. very painful. Cls include lameness, non weight baring and signs of discomfort. To dx you can use radiographs, top 3 lab tests and biopsys.
- treatment depends on severity of cancer and ranges from surgery, cancer medications, cancer specialist to euthenasia
cervical spondylopathy paragraph
cervical spondylopathy affects large breed dogs a condition of where a underlying issue in the vetebrae such as dislocation of the vertebrae, deformed vertebra, or cartilage cause compression on the spinal cord. this causes pain, neirological deficit, paraparesis, prancing gait and pain. to dx we use radiographs, myelogram, top 3 and physical exam. to treat we can use anti inflam drugs, rest or surgery.
chocolate toxicity paragraph.
a disorder where toxic affects occur due to ingestion of chocolate and a toxic reation to the component called theobromine. Can kill within 6-24 hours cause cardiac and resp failure, vom/diarrhea, hyper, excitability, incoordination and muscle tremors. to dx, top 3 and treat with anti emetic, activated charcoal, anti convulsants, anti arrythmics, iv fluids and hospitilisaton.
chronic kidney failure
- a disorder where the kidneys fail to filter out toxins from the blood due to a underlying issue of decreased affectivity of the kidney over time causing waste products to accumilate in the blood stream. Clinical signs include vom/dia, bad breath, p/d , p/u anorexia if not treated, coma or death. dx with top 3, blood work and u/a
- tx iv fluids, low protein diet and monitor kidney functions.
congestive heart failure
results when the heart fails to pump enough blood to the body to meet normal bodily needs. can be due to parasite, infection or underlying heart disease. cls include puffy legs, coughing, dyspnea, syncope, bluish grey tongue. to dx we do radiographs, EKG, top 3, doppler ultrasound. To treat remove accumilated fluid to decrease amount of work the heart has, give diurectic, cardiac drugs and check blood urine every 6 months. also monitor bp.
a disorder where the animal has failed to pass a bowel movement in the last 48 hours. can be a sign of large bowel problems caused by dietry indescretion, enviromental factors. cls include no bowel movement for 2 days, general health worsens to dx we do a physical exam , rectla exam. radiograph and blood work. to treat we can give laxatives, medications, enemas, or surgery, dietary suplements include high fibre diet, pumpkin Water or a fibre suplement added in
cranial cruciate ligament rupture
a disorder wheere the cranial cruciate ligament ruptures behind the knee causing the femur to slide against the tibia causing pain, abnormal wear and tear leading to arthritis.normally in overweight dogs. CLs include non weight baring, pain on rising, lameness, dx this with top 3 radiographs, the drawer sign treat with surgery a intrascapular or extrascapsular/ tplo or kennel rest for 5-6 weeks as well as physio and weight loss.
a disorder where the pituitary gland has a benign tumor causing it to malfunction and create too much ACTH hormone which in turn causes the adrenal gland to create to much cortisol which creates to high a level of cortisol. this creates alopecia p/d,p/u,p,p enlarged abdomen, chronic infections and muscle weakeness, to dx we will do, top 3, P/E we with do a dex test a ct/MRI and blood count. to tx it is incurable but you can take lysodren which erodes the adrenal gland to decrease the amount of cortisol production in the blood. therefore needing a ACTH test done every 6 months
inflammation of the urinary bladder usually caused by stones or bacteria. cls include frequent lickingg, trying to urinate, urinating outside of the litter box, hematuria, dysuria, to dx we do a top 3, u/a and blood work. to treat ab for 10-14 days kept inside recheck u/a and change diet.
FLUTd-feline lower urinary tract disorder
a general term for a collective group of issues such as cystitis and urethritis. has a genetic potential and cls will include urinating outside of litter box, dysuria, hematuria, yowling and licking at genitals. dx with top 3, radiographs, u/a for crystals and ph level as well as blood tests. to treat surgery (perineal urethrostomy), catheterisation, doet change to restore bladder function.
gastric dilation/vulvolus (bloat)
affects large dogs where balooning of the stomach and filling with a frothy material and large amounts of gas(dilation) which then causes twisting of the stomach around on itsself (volvulus) closing both inlet and outlet of stomach. cls will include gagging, retching, trying to vomit, frothy material, thick salivation, collapse, bloated abdomen and restlessness. dx by top 3 and radiographs. treat with laparotomy and gastropexy a grastric lavage to pump out stomach contents.
- when large amounts of hair is ingested and cannot be passed, cls include non productive vomiting, retching, gagging.
- dx with top 3, p/e radiographs visulisation in feces or vomit. in mild cases treat with laxatives can be given on reg basis on a sevear case surgery is required
- anorexia >mobilisation of fat> triglycerides>3-7 days>end up in liver to be metabolised> overwhelms liver = decreased liver functions
- this creates jaundice, weight loss, vom, depression mostly caused by stress, indoor and obese cat or a underlying illness
- dx with top 3, blood tests, biopsy treat with nutrition feeding tube in a stress free enviroment
high ride syndome
- when a cat falls and doesnt have time to right its self with its vestibular apparatus or righting reflex it has a bigger chance of survival falling from 7-10 stories than 2-6 stories.
- depending on types of injurys treat for the injurys
- a condition where abnormal growth of the hip joint results in a unstable joint causing over time defomatys and pain in the joints causing arthritis.
- dx with top 3 pe and radiographs ()radiographs must be done under GA* radiographs must be sent to O.F.A
- cls inculde, pain on rising, reluctance to exercise, prancing gait, bunny hop
a excessive production of the thyroxine by the thyroid gland caused by a abnormal growth or benign tumor on one or both thyroid glands, cls include weight loss, p/u /p/d neglect normal grooming and tachycardia. dx with blood tests, radiographs you can treat with surgery radioactive iodine treatment tapazole or hills y/d diet
- a decrease in the production of thyroxine produced by the thyroid gland a direct reaction to amount of iron in the diet causes increased body weight due to slow metabolism alopecia lethargy bradycardia, dx with top 3 blood adn urine tests.
- treat with synthroid, eltroxin and thyrotabs for life
inflammatory bowel disease
- caused when cells involved in inflammation and immune response are called to the lining of the G.I tract and thickens the bowel lining. this inter-fears with absorption and ability to contract and move food. cls include borborygmi (rumbling sounds in stomach) gas
- melena (black stool ) vocalisation and lower protein levels in blood due to leaky intestinal tract. dx with tests to rule out other reasons , u/a, fecal tests, serum blood tests, tissue sample, biopsy diet trial. treat with metronidazole diet management and drug therapy
IVDD invertebral disc disease
when damaged vetebrae bulge or rupture putting pressure on the spinal cord normally seen in large breed and long backed dogs. cls include cripling of limbs, discomft on rising, no bowel movements, breathing problems, seizures. dx with top 3 myelogram, radiographs, neurologic tests, treat with surgery , treatment depends on severity
lipomas, fatty tumors
when fat cells multiply under the skin causing a tumor formation. slow growing, smooth, round movable masses under the skin usually benign. cls include visulisation of tumor to dx, top 3 and p/e and treatment, surgical removal of
mammary tumors in cats
- very common in cats most common in siamese, tumor of mammary gland, cls include enlargment of teats, pain in abdominal area,
- waxing and leaking of teats.
- dx with top 3 physical exam. fine needle aspiarate, biopsy, radiographs, blood and urine tests, treat with surgery and chemotherepy
seizure disorders,explain what seizures are and what are partial, generalized nd idiopathic sezures
caused by sudden excessive discharge or electrical energy in groups of brain cells, a seizure results in changes of motor activity, conciousness and sensation.
1-partial seizures-involve head turing, muscle twitching and abnormal behaviour
2-generilized-aquired by trauma, brain tumors, rigid muscles jerking of limbs, neck and face muscles
3-idiopathic seizures-unknown reasons, epilepsy disorders or toxicitiy
what does epilepticus mean?
a constant seizure state for a period of 10-15 minutes without conciousness
cls of seizures include 3 phases, explain the 3 stages of a seizure
pre ictal- before seizure when animal is restless, overly anxioius, lasts about a minute and goes un-noticed
ictal phase-where seizure takes place, ranging from mild muscle convulsing to sevear with defecation and urination, may lose conciousness, paddle limbs on ground, salivation head and neck extension
post ictal phase- immediatley after seizure,confusion, disorientation, pacing weakness, rapid breathing, temporary, blindness and exhaustion may follow.
how do you dx and treat a seizure?
- blood/urine tests
- CSF analysis
- skull radiographs/ct scan
- blood tests, check for distemper, fip or toxo
tx controls not cures treats the frequency length and severity of seizures after seizure should be left in quiet area
give valium and oral phenobarbitol or potassium bromide at home and check potassium bromide levels every 6 months
explain the 3 types of poisonings and what they are suppose to kill
- strychinine-rodents, moles
slug bait poisoning
- metaldehyde is toxic in 3-4 oz. it is a pesticide meant to kill slugs, contains less than 4% metaldehyde. cls appear within 1-4 hours depended on amount consumed
- cls include anxiety, drooling, muscle tremors, rapid pulse, inco-ordination. left untreated die from resp distress.
- dx with presense of bait in vomit, lab analysis of stomach contents, blood tests for clotting problems
- treat with emetic, activated charcoal, i.v valium, anti convulsants,
- VALIUM MAY BE ANTIDOTE
- monitor in hopsital for 1-3 days
- for preditors such as rodents and moles. placed in meats and grains and penuts and are accidently eaten by pet. cls include refusal to eat, vomiting, depression, inactivity, reslessness, unusual excitability and convulsions. dx with top 3, p/e and blood tests
- to treat remove poison with emetic and activated charcoal, give iv. valium for seizures as well as supportive treatments until effects of poison have warn off.
- anticoagulant used to control rodents such as rats. mainly due to when pet eats rodent that has ingested warfarin poisoning or directly.
- cls include depression, anorexia, weekness, ataxia, hypernea, concuring with haemorrhage,
haemorrhage signs include anemia, hemothorax, hemoptysis, hematoma, melana, hematuria, epitaxis dx with top 3 p/e blood tests to evaluate clotting funtion
- treat with vitamin K to restore clotting function,
- activated charcoal
- supportive treatments til effects wear off and oxygen and thoracocentesis, releive dyspnea