Protein Synthesis

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Protein Synthesis
2013-01-03 08:28:41
Biology Science Protein DNA Genetic Genes

Short review for a quiz about protein synthesis
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  1. Proteins
    Type of macromolecule so abundant in living things that it makes up most of our non-water weight
  2. Ribosomes
    Little, round structures in the cytoplasm that act as the site of protein synthesis
  3. Gene
    A segment of DNA on a chromosome that holds the instructions for building a protein
  4. Mutation
    A change in the DNA sequence that can be good (cause evolution), bad (cause disease), or neither ("silent," changing no amino acids).
  5. mRNA
    "messenger RNA"; single stranded RNA that carries the code of DNA from the nucleus out to the ribosome
  6. Transcription
    The process of copying the code of DNA onto a single-stranded mRNA molecule; happens in the nucleus
  7. Translation
    The process of decoding the sequence of nucleotides on mRNA into a sequence of amino acids; happens in the cytoplasm on a ribosome
  8. Codon
    A series of three mRNA nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid
  9. Amino Acids
    The building blocks of proteins
  10. Anticodon
    A series of three tRNA nucleotides that corresponds with the codon on mRNA
  11. tRNA
    "transfer RNA"; clover-shaped molecules that bring amino acids to the ribosome to dock with the mRNA molecule
  12. Three structural differences between DNA and RNA:
    • - DNA is double-stranded, whereas RNA is single-stranded so it can leave the nucleus.
    • - Instead of Deoxyribose sugar (DNA), RNA has ribose sugar.
    • - DNA has a thymine base, whereas RNA has a uracil base.
  13. Transcribe:
  14. What are the types of mutations?
    • -Silent
    • -Deletion
    • -Insertion
    • -Missense (Substitution)
    • -Frameshift
    • -Nonsense
  15. What happens during silent mutation?
    During a silent mutation, a nitrogen base is changed but results in the same amino acid, therefore making no change - or being "silent."
  16. What happens during a deletion?
    A deletion is caused by a nitrogen base being taken out, or "deleted." This causes the entire chain to move over and no longer pass the correct message.
  17. What happens during an insertion?
    An insertion is the opposite of a deletion. During an insertion, a nitrogen base is inserted into a codon, therefore moving the sequence over, so it no longer passes the correct message.
  18. What happens during a missense (substitution)?
    During a missense, one nitrogen base will replace another (A to G, for example). This can result in a different amino acid, or it can be "silent" and not change anything.
  19. What is a frameshift mutation?
    A frameshift is a mutation that moves an entire sequence over. This includes deletions and insertions.
  20. What is a nonsense mutation?
    A nonsense mutation occurs when an amino acid is changed and results in an early STOP (nonsense).