Nervous System

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Nervous System
2013-01-24 18:56:52

test 5
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  1. What are two parts that make up the nervous system
    • central nervous system
    • peripheral nervous system
  2. what part of the nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord
    central nervous system
  3. what part of the nervous system contains blood vessels and connective tissues
  4. what part of the nervous system functions in integrating and cooordinating to sensory data occuring inside and outside the body
  5. what part of the nervous system motors commands to muscle and glands
  6. what part of the nervous system functions in intelligence, memory, learning, and emotion
  7. what part of the nervous system contains all neural tissue outside of cns
    peripheral nervous system
  8. what system delivers sensory information to cns and carries motor commands back to peripheral tissues
  9. what is another name for sensory neurons
  10. what is another name for motor neurons
  11. what are the two divisions of motor neurons and the effectors they innervate with
    • somatic nervous system
    • visceral motor system/ autonomic nervous system
  12. what division of motor neurons provides voluntary control of skeletal muscle
    somatic nervous system
  13. what division of motor neurons controls involuntary actiosn of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular secretions
    autonomic nervous system
  14. what are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system
    • sympathetic division
    • parasympathetic division
  15. what division of the ans controls involuntary actions under times of stress
  16. what division of the ans controls involuntary actions during times of non-stress or to recover after a stress response
  17. what carry sensory information from the body to the brain and motor commands from the brain to the body in the pns
  18. what are blood vessels, connective tissue, and bundles of nerve fibers called
    peripheral nerves
  19. what are nerves connected to the brain called
  20. how many cranial nerves do we have
    12 pair
  21. what are the nerves connected to the spinal cord called
  22. how many spinal nerves are there
    31 pair
  23. what carrry sensory information to the cns and motor info from the cns
    spinal nerves
  24. what are the connective tissues that protect nerves
    • epineurium
    • perineurium
    • endoneurium
  25. what connective tissue is the outer most protective layer of nerves
  26. what connetive tissue surrounds the fascicles of neurons
  27. what connective tissue surrounds each individual axon of a nerve
  28. what type of cells protect and hold neurons together?
  29. what are the 6 types of glia cells
    • ependymal
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrocytes
    • microglia
    • satellite
    • schwann
  30. what type of glia cells are found in the cns
    • ependymal
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrites
    • microglia
  31. what type of glia cells are found in the pns
    • satellite
    • schwann
  32. what type of glial cell lines the central canal of the spinal cord and brain ventricles
  33. what type of glial cell secretes and circulates cerebral spinal fluid
  34. what type of glial cell maintains the blood-brain barrier, which protects brain tissue from harmful contents of blood
  35. what type of glial cell maintains a 3d framework for the cns
  36. what type of glial cell is the largest and most numerous
  37. what type of glial cell moves to sites of neural damage to make structural repairs that stabilize the tissue preventing further damage
  38. what type of glial cell guides the growht and interconnection of developing neurons in a developing embryo and fetus
  39. what type of glial cell controls interstitial environment balance-ions, nutritents, absorbing and recycling neurotransmitters
  40. what type of glial cell produces myelin which protects and unites axons and increase the speed of an impluse/action potential
  41. what type of glial cell is very small, mobile, and are phagocytic WBC's that digest foregin matter, dead nervous tissue, and microorganisms
  42. what type of glial cells surrond and protect a neurons cell body in ganglia
  43. what type of glial cell supply nutrients to surrounding neurons and also aid in muscle repair and regeneration
  44. what type of glial cell encloses all axons of the pns with a neurolemma, responsible for myelination of some peripheral axons and neuron repair
  45. what type of cells send, receive, and interpret electrical and chemical signals between the body and brain
  46. what type of cell does not have high regerneration abilites
  47. what are the parts of a neuron
    • dendrites
    • cell body
    • axon
  48. what part of neurons detect changes in temperature, pressure, or chemisty and initiates an electrical impulse that will travel along the neurons cell membrane to the body
  49. what part of neurons receive an electrical impulsee via another neurons axon
  50. what are the 3 types of dendrites
    • exteroceptors
    • proprioceptors
    • interoceptors
  51. what type of dendrite provides info about touch, temp, and the senses of sight, hearing and both smell and taste
  52. what type of dendrite monitors the position and movement/balance of skeletal muscles and joints
  53. what type of dendrite monitors the digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems and pain
  54. what part of a neuron contains the nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, RER
    cell body/soma
  55. what part of a neuron is a long thin cytoplasmic extension of the soma that carries the impulse to the dendrite of the next neuron
  56. what are the tips of an axon called
  57. what are the four parts on an axon
    • myelin
    • schwann cell
    • nodes of ranvier
    • neurolemma
  58. what part of an axon is the protective sheath around it that increase the speed of an impulse
  59. what part of an axon makes white matter, white
  60. what part of an axon is responsible for the nuerolemma that surrounds axons in the pns
    schwann cell
  61. what part of an axon is the area between adjacent schwann cells where there is no myelin covering of the axon
    nodes of ranvier
  62. what part of an axon is the outer cell membrane of a schwann cell
  63. why don't cns nuerons regenerate
    axons of the cns lack neurolemma
  64. what are the 4 classifcations of neurons
    • anaxonic
    • bipolar
    • unipolar
    • multipolar
  65. what type of neuron are small, with no myelin or anatomical clues to distinguish dendrites from axons
  66. what type of neurons are only found in the cns
  67. what type of neuron has one dendrite and one axon and the cell body between them
  68. what type of neuron plays an important role in relaying information concerning sight, smell, and hearing
  69. what type of neuron has the axonal processes and denritic processes continuous and the cell body lies off to one side
  70. what type of neuron may or may not be myelinated
  71. what type of neuron have several dendrites and a single axon that may have one or more branches
  72. what type of neuron are the most common type in the cns
  73. what type of neuron are all motor neurons that control skeletal muscle with myelinated axons
  74. what are the 3 funcitons of neurons
    • sensory
    • motor
    • interneuron
  75. what function of neurons detect changes in the internal and external environment and send info to the cns
  76. what function of neurons posses exteroceptros, proprioceptors, and interceptors
  77. what function of neurons carry info from the cns to perpheral effectors
  78. what are motor neurons connecting to volunatry skeletal muscles called
  79. what are motor neurons connecting to involuntary cardiac muscle, smooth muscleor glands called
  80. what function of neurons intergrate and distribute sensory ddate with the coordination of motor activity
  81. What is the self spreading wave of electrical disturbance traveling the surface of the neurolemma called
    nerve impulse/ action potential
  82. what is the path of an impulse
    dendrite, body/soma, axon
  83. what is the difference in electrical charges across a cell membrane at homeostasis called
    resting potential
  84. what contains high concentrations of sodium ions and chorlide ions
  85. contains high concentrations of potassium ions and negatively charged proteins
  86. why doesn't diffusion continue until ions are evenly distributed
    living cells have selectively permeable membranes
  87. what is the movement of potassium ions out of the cell through potassium channels moved by
    chemical gradient
  88. does sodium move into or out of the cell
  89. why do potassium ions leave the cytoplasm more rapidly than sodium ions enter
    membrane permeability to potassium is much greater then its  permeability to sodium
  90. is the IFC negative or positive
  91. is the EFC negative or positive
  92. what is the resting potential of a cell
  93. What eliminates potential difference
    when oppositely charged ions move together
  94. what happens to the resistance that separates the charges if the current is small
    resistance is high
  95. what happens to the resistance that separates the charges if the current is large
    resistance is low
  96. How can the resistance of cell membranes be changed
    by opening or closing ion channels that results in currents taht bring ions into or out of ICF
  97. what occurs at normal resting potential
    slow leakage of some sodium ions into the cell and potassium ions out of the cell
  98. what does the cell use to eject sodium ions and reclaim potassium ions
  99. what exchanges 3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions and contributes to the negativity of the tansmembrane potential
    sodium potassium pump
  100. what are the changes in the transmembrane potential that cannot spread far from the area surrounding the site of stimulation calleed
    graded/local potentials
  101. what is any shift in the transmembrane potential away from resting levels and toward 0 mV or above called
  102. what is the loss of positive ions that produces a shift from resting potential away from 0 mV called 
  103. what is caused by an open potassium channel increasing the loss of positive ions from the ICF
  104. what is the process of restoring the normal resting potential after depolarization and occurs when a chemical stimulus is removed
  105. what is the change in the transmembrane potential that spreads across an entire excitable membrane called
    action potential
  106. where are action potentials usually initiated
    proximal axon
  107. what stimulus initiates an action potential
    depolarization large enough to open voltage-regulated sodium channels
  108. what transmembrane potential occurs between -60mV and -55mV
  109. what does a stimulus that lowers the resting potential from -70mV to -60mV produce
    graded depolarization
  110. where can ions cross the cell membrane on an axon
    only on the nodes of ranvier
  111. what part of an axon can only respond to a depolarization stimulus
    nodes of ranvier
  112. what is the process in which action potentials jump from node to node to speed up the action potential called
    saltatory propagation or saltatory conduction
  113. what is the space between neurons and neurons, neurons and muscles, or neurons and glands called
  114. what does the impulse pass from and to at a synapse involving two neurons
    presynaptic to postsynaptic
  115. what are the two types of snyapses
    electrical and chemical
  116. what type of synapse is direct physical contact between the cells
  117. what type of synapse involves a neurotransmitter
  118. where are electrical synapses found
    pns and cns (eye, heart, smooth muscle)
  119. what allows the impulse to travel between the common cell membranes quickly in an electrical synapse
    presynaptic and postsynaptic membrane are locked together
  120. do neurons touch at a chemical synaptic
  121. what is the advantage of not allowing neurons to touch in a chemical synapse
    dynamic range of fucntions and irregularities
  122. what are the chemcial messengers between neurons or between neurons and effectors
  123. what are 3 types of chemical synapses
    • caffeine
    • dilantin
    • ssri's
  124. what type of chemical synapse stimulates the nervous system by lowering the thresholds at synapses so taht neurons are easily excited
  125. what type of chemical synapse treats seizure disorders by increasing the effectiveness of active sodium transport from inside the neuron to outside
  126. what type of chemical synapse stabilizes the membrane thershold agaisnt too rapid stimulation
  127. what type of chemical synapse keep the serotonin neurotrnasmittor in the synapse longer which helps symptoms of depression and anxiety amoung other
    selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  128. what type of neurotransmitters cause depolarization and promote action potentials
  129. what type of neurotransmitter causes hyperpolarization and depress action potentials
  130. where is acteylcholine released at
    • all neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle
    • many snypases inside cns
    • all neuron-to-neuron synapses of the pns
    • all neuroeffector junctinos of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
  131. what 4 steps do drugs interfere with in the process of synaptic transmission
    • interfere with transmitter
    • alter the rate of transmitter release
    • prevent transmitter inactivatin
    • prevent transmitter binding to receptors
  132. what is the widespread of paralysis of skeletal muscles called
  133. what toxin is responsible for the primary symportoms of botulism
    botulinus toxin
  134. what blocks the release of ACh at the presynaptic membrane of cholingergic neurons
  135. what causes a massive release of ACh that produces intense muscular cramps and spasms
    black widow venom
  136. how long and wide is the adult spinal cord
    18" and .55"
  137. what is a shallow longitudinal groove along the posterior/dorsal surface of the spinal cord
    posterior median sulcus
  138. what is the deep longitudinal groove along the anterior/ventral surface of the spinal cord called
    anterior median fissure
  139. where is the amount of gray matter increased on the spinal cord
    in segments concerned with the sensory and motor control of limbs
  140. what part of the spinal cord supplies nerves to the should girldes and upper limbs
    cervical enlargements
  141. what part of the spinal cord supplies nerves to the pelivic girdle and lower limbs
    lumbar enlargements
  142. what are the 4 parts of spinal cord protection
    • musculature
    • skeleton
    • cerebral spinal fluid
    • meninges
  143. what protects the spinal cord from physical contact with the vertebral canal and infection
  144. what provides physical stability and shock absroption
  145. what brances from the meninges and delivers oxygen and nutrients to cord
    blood vessels
  146. what forms the outermost dense covering of the spinal cord
    dura mater
  147. what lies between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal
    epidural space
  148. what contains loose connective tissue, blood vessels and a protective padding of adipose in the spinal cord
    epidural space
  149. what causes temporary sensory and motor paralysis in the spinal cord
    epidural block- injecting an anesthetic into epidural space
  150. what provides longitudinal support for the spinal cord
    cranially by fusion into the periosteum of the occipital bone and caudally to the coccygeal ligament which will fuse with the periosteum of the sacrum
  151. what provides lateral support of the spinal cord
    • loose connective tissue
    • adipose
    • dura mater extensions between adjacent vertebrae
    • fusing with spinal nerve covering
  152. what is the thin subdural space that sperates the inner surface of the dura mater from the second layer
  153. what lies beneath the arachnoid
    subarachnoid space
  154. what contains a delicate network of connective tissues that bathe in the csf
    subarachnoid space
  155. what is it called when a needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space in the lower lumbar region
    spinal tap
  156. what 2 things are spinal taps used for
    • detect infection- meningitis
    • diagnosis of severe back pain and headaches
  157. what is the innermost meninge where blood vessels that feed the cord lay
    pia mater
  158. what extend from the pia mater through the arachnoid to the dura mater, prevent lateral movement of the cord
    denticulate ligaments
  159. what marks the division between the left and right sides of the spinal cord
    anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus
  160. what does the white matter in the spinal cord contain
    large number of myelinated and unmylienated axons
  161. what does the gray matter of the spinal cord contain
    cell bodies of neurons and glial cells
  162. what are projections of gray matter toward the outer surface of the cord called
  163. what are the cell bodes of neurons in the gray matter of the cord organized into
    sensory and motor
  164. what type of gray matter contains somatic and visceral sensory neurons
    posterior gray horns
  165. what type of gray matter contains somatic motor neurons
    anterior gray horns
  166. what type of gray matter contains visceral motor neurons
    lateral gray horns
  167. what are the axons about and below the central canal that cross from one side tof the cord to the other
    gray commissures
  168. how many columns are myelinated axons of white matter divided into
    3 on each side
  169. what does each column of myelinated axons contain
    tracts whose axons share functional and structral characterisitics
  170. what type of white matter lies between the anterior gray horns and the anterior median fissure
    anterior white column
  171. what type of white matter extends between the posterior gray horns and the anterior median fissure
    posterior white column
  172. what type of white matter lies between the anterior and posterior columns
    lateral white column
  173. what part of the pns are collections of neuron cell bodies
  174. what part of the pns are bundles of axons
  175. what part of the cns are gray matter on the surgace of the brain
    neural cortex
  176. what part of the cns are collections of neuron cell bodies in the interior of the cns
  177. what is every spinal segment associated with that contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons
    dorsal root ganglia
  178. what contains the axons of the neurons in the dorsal root ganglia
    dorsal roots
  179. waht brings sensory info into the spinal cord
    dorsal roots
  180. what contains the aons of motor neurons and visceral effectors of spinal cord
    ventral roots
  181. why are spinal nerves classified as mixed nerves
    they contain both afferent and efferent neurons
  182. how many pairs of spinal nerves are there
  183. what are the rapid automatic responses to stimuli called
  184. what preserve homeostais by making quick adjustments in the function of organs and organ systems
  185. what are the parts of the reflex arc
    • stimulus
    • receptor
    • control center
    • effector
    • response
  186. what are the 4 regions of the brain
    • brain stem
    • cerebellum
    • diencephalon
    • cerebrum
  187. what brain region contains the medulla oblongata, pons, and the midbrain
    brain stem
  188. what part of the brain stem is the most inferior portion
    medulla oblongata
  189. what part of the brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord superior to the magnum foramen
    medulla oblongata
  190. what parts of the brain stem are made up of mexed gray and white matter
    • medulla oblongata
    • pons
    • midbrain
  191. what are the vital functions of the medulla oblongata
    • heartbeat
    • respiration
    • blood pressure
  192. what are some functions of the medulla oblongata
    • swallowing
    • coughing
    • sneezing
    • vomiting
  193. what part of the brain stem relays all messages between the spinal cord and brain
    medulla oblongata
  194. what part of the brain stem is found superior to the medulla oblongata and is inferior to the midbrain
  195. what are the functions of the pons
    • breathing
    • relaying info between various parts of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord
  196. what part of the brain stem is found superior to the pons
  197. what are the functions of the midbrain
    • visual and auditory reflexes
    • integration of muscle tone and posture
  198. what brain region is the second largest portion of the brain
  199. what brain region is found posterior to the brain stem and is inferior to the posterior cerebrum
  200. where is white matter located on the cerebellum
  201. where is gray matter located on the cerebellum
  202. what are the functions of the cerebellum
    balance, coordination of movements, posture, and muscle tone
  203. what brain region consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus
  204. what part of the diencephalon is separated by the 3rd ventricle
    thalamus- left and right
  205. what part of the diencephalon is superior to the midbrain and inferior to the cerebrum
  206. what part of the diencephalon consists of two masses of gray matter, partially covered with white matter
  207. what are the functions of the thalamus
    • main relay center between cerebrum and spinal cord where messages are sorted and partially interpreted
    • memory process
  208. what part of the diencephalon is located anterior to the midbrain and posterior to the frontal lobe of cerebrum
  209. what part of the diencephalon mainly consists of gray matter
  210. what are the functions of the hypothalamus
    • control of involuntary somatic motor activites
    • control of autonomic function
    • coordination of nervous and endocrine systems
    • secretion of hormones
    • production of emotions and behavior drives
    • coordination between voluntary and autonomic functions
    • regulation of body temps
  211. what is located between the cerebrum and diencephalon
    limbic system
  212. what are the functios of the diencephalon
    • establishing emotional states and related behavioral drives
    • links conscious, intellectual functions of the cerebral cortex with unconscious and autonomic functions of brain stem
    • facilitates memory storage and retrieval
  213. what brain region is the largests
  214. what brain region the most superior, anterior, and posterior portion of the CNS
  215. what brain region consists of a thin outer cortex of gray matter with a thicker inner portion of white matter containing tracts of gray matter
  216. what are the 3 ares of functions of the cerebrum
    • motor areas
    • sensory areas
    • association areas
  217. what part of the cerebrum is gray matter within white matter that initiates skeletal muscle contraction and coordination
    basal ganglia
  218. what part of the cerebrum connects neurons within the same hemisphere and between hemisphere
    white matter
  219. what is the long, deepest groove of the cerebrum
  220. what are the grooves, usually shallow, of the cerebrum
  221. what are the elevated ridges of the cerebrum
  222. what is the white matter that connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain
    corpus callosum
  223. what part of the brain are cavities lines with ependyma cells that make and transport CSF
    brain ventricles
  224. what ventricles are an enlarged ventricular chamber found side by side in each hemispheree
    lateral ventricles
  225. what are the first and second ventricles seperated by
  226. what ventricle is located within the diencephalon just below the lateral ventricles
    3rd ventricle
  227. what connects the lateral venticles to the 3rd ventricle
    interventricular foramen
  228. what do the laterial verticles use to communicate
    3rd ventricle
  229. what ventricle is located posterior to the pons, anterior to teh cerebellum, and extends down into the medulla oblongata
    4th ventricle
  230. how do the third and fourth ventricles connects
    cerebral aqueduct
  231. what ventricle extends down into the central canal of the spinal cord
    4th ventricle
  232. what is CSF produced by
    ependymal cells of choroid plexus
  233. how is CSF moved from the ventricles
    pressure and the movement of cilia lining the ventricles
  234. what protects the brain
    • musculature
    • CSF
    • glial cells (astrocytes) from the blood-brain barrier
  235. what disorder is the lack or loss of memory, especially inablility to recall past expierences
  236. what disorder is caused by degeneration of motor neurons and atrophy of muscles and the hardening of the lateral regions of the spinal cord
    ALS- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  237. what disorder is also called presenile dementia
  238. what disorder is a degenerative disorder characterized by a loss of cells from the cerebral cortex and areas of teh limbic system and loss of memory for recent events
  239. what disorder is caused by an inflammation of the facial nerve and includes facial paralysis and reudced taste sensation
    bell's palsy
  240. what disorder is an abnormal lens of the eye that has lost its tranparency, causing cloudy, obscured vision
  241. what disorder is a term applied to a number of motor disorders resulting in from CNS damage at birth
    cerebral palsy
  242. what disorder is caused by brain ischemia(blood deficiency)
    cerebralvascular accident -CVA 
  243. what disorder is more commonly known as a stroke and is the most common neurologic disability
  244. what disorder is brain trauma caused by the head being hit in which neurons are distorted and includes loss of consciousness, headache, nausea, confusion, light sensitivety, seizures, unequal pupils
  245. what disorder is a general term for mental deterioarion
  246. what disorder is a neoplasm or tumor of glial cells, brain cells, and or spinal cord
    glioma (CNS). neuroma(PNS)
  247. what disorder is a heredity disease characterized by jerky, involuntary movements and mental deterioration
  248. what disorder is caused by interference with the normal circulation and reabsorption of CSF, also called water on the brain
  249. what disorder is caused by bacterial infection, it causes skin lesions and pain cessation. without feeling pain, minor injuries and infections can become life threatening
  250. what disorder occurs when myelin sheaths of the CNS deteriorate and are replaced by scar tissue, disrupting vision, speech, strength, balance and excretion control, and pain
    multiple sclerosis
  251. what disorder is a progressive loss of motor funciton due to teh degeneration of dopamine-releasing neurons
  252. what disorder is caused by the chickenpox virus and is stored and controlled by the dorsal root ganglia
  253. what disorder causes pain, skin discoloration, fluid filled vessicles which appear on the chest and waist, often on 1 side of the body and can last up to 6 months
  254. what disorder is a congenital defect resulting from the failure of one or more vertebrae to form a complete enclosure around the spinal cord
    spinal bifada
  255. what disorder is most common in the lubrosarcal region, includes no functional problems to lack of bladder and bowel control and paralysis
    spina bifada
  256. what disoder is fainting that occurs dues to emotional stress, decreased blood pressue or cardia distress