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What elements are protein subunits made from?
C, H, O and N
What are protein subunits called?
How many of these subunits are there?
What chemical groups are found on the subunits?
- On one end there is an amino acid group - NH2
- On the other end there is a carboxylic acid group - COOH
- There is also a sidechain - R - which differs with each amino acid
Amino acids with a polar sidechain are hydrophillic or hydrophobic?
Amino acids with a non-polar sidechain are hydrophillic or hydrophobic?
What makes the amino acid acidic?
The carboxyl group
What makes the amino acid basic?
The amino group
Humans have to eat some animo acids in their diet - what are these called?
Essential amino acids
What type of bond joins the amino acids together?
Amino acids bond between the amino group and carboxylic acid group of different amino acids. This forms a peptide bond.
Is a peptide bond a strong bond?
A peptide bond is a covalent bond which means it is a very strong bond
What type of reaction occurs when amino acids join together? What type of molecule is released?
- A dehydration (condensation) reaction occurs
- Water is released
What is the difference between fibrous and globular proteins?
Fibrous proteins are arranged in long sheets whereas globular proteins are highly folded spheres which have a 3D structure
What is primary protein structure?
The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain eg glycine
What is secondary protein structure?
This refers to the formation of coils and sheets within a polypeptide due to hydrogen bonding
If the polypeptide is coiled then it is...?
An alpha helix
If the polypeptide has a side by side configuration then it is...?
What is tertiary protein structure?
The final 3-dimensional shape of the protein. It is stabalised between interactions between R groups of amino acids
In tertiary protein structure, what are the five types of interactions between the side chains?
- Hydrophobic interactions
- Van der waals interactions
- Hydrogen bonding
- Ionic bonds
- Disulphide bridges
What is quarternary protein structure?
When proteins have more than one polypeptide subunit eg haemoglobin which is composed of 2 alpha and 2 beta chains
Give an example of a catalytic protein
Enzymes eg catylase, DNA polymerase, amylase
Give an example of a structural protein
Collagen (found in bones and cartlidge)
Give an example of a messenger protein
Hormones eg insulin
Give an example of a carrier protein
The sodium/potassium pump
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