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Are infectious diseases the same as communicable diseases?
Any disease transmitted from one person or animal to another; also called contagious disease. Sometimes quarantine is required to prevent the spread of disease.
What are the three factors that affect the vector?
What are the stages of Infection?
The rate or range of occurrence or influence of something, esp. of something unwanted
belonging exclusively or confined to a particular place, Certain number expected to happen every year.
a sudden and active manifestation, or increase in numbers
prevalent throughout an entire country, continent, or the whole world; epidemic over a large area
affecting many persons at the same time, and spreading from person to person in a locality where the disease is not permanently prevalent.extremely prevalent; widespread
When looking at an Outbreak, you take into consideration...
- New diagnostic testing - more results
- The definition of the disease - AIDS vs. HIV
List the chain of Transmission
- Infectious agent
- susceptible host
- portal of entry
- portal of exit
What are the necessary factors of Infectious agents?
- The ability to infect - Infectivity
- Pathogenicity - has to develop into a disease
- Virulence - Create symptoms
- Toxicity - Toxic effects on the body
- Invasiveness - easily enter and exit
- Resistance - not easily treated
- Antigenicity - ability to activate the immune system
What are the four main categories of infectious Agents?
- High infectivity
- high Pathogenicity
- low virulence
- low infectivity
- high pathogenicity
- high virulence
Antibiotic resistant diseases
- Hep ABC
- Rocky Mt Spotted Fever
List the Mycoses - Fungus
- Athletes foot
- Mycoplasmal - yeast infection
Protozoa & Helminthes
Respiratory passages, mucous membranes, skin, percutaneous space, mouth, placenta
Respiratory secretions, vaginal secretions, semen, saliva, lesion exudates, blood, feces.
Parent to offspring, usually through reproduction (Transportation)
Person to Person Transportation
Person to person
Touch, bite, kiss, sexual contact, coughing, sneezing, laughing transmission Horizontal
Fomities (inanimate object) , Vectors for om horizontal transmission
Animals or arthropods
vector directly injecting and infecting
Fly carrying fecal component to food
Example of Combination of modes Direct and indirect
- Fecal Oral
- Consumption of contaminated food
- Oral sexual activity
What are the two factors that help susecptibility
- resistance or lack thereof to an infections agent
- biological and personal factors
any disease of animals communicable to humans
What do you do to break the chain of transmission for the agent?
- radiation of fomites
What do you do to break the chain of transmission for the Host?
What do you do to break the chain of transmission for the portals of entry and exit?
- universal precautions
Species-determined innate resistance to an infectious agent
attained due to previous natural exposure
Host production of antibodies, by either from pathogen or vaccination
Transfer of antibody from an immunized individual to non-immunized individual.
Those not immune to the infectious agent are protected if a proportion of the population is vaccinated or immune. Magic number is 80%.
What are the three reasons to make a disease reportable?
- Prevent spread of disease
- Detect outbreaks
- monitor trends of a disease
Who is responsible for monitoring diseases
What are three categories of infectious diseases?
- Control - herd immunity
- elimination - near zero - polio
- eradication - none - small pox