Muscle chpter

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Muscle chpter
2010-05-13 03:02:05
Muscle Terms

Muscle Chapter Terms
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  1. Fascia
    is a general term for connective tisue sheets within the body
  2. Muscular Fascia
    separates and compartmentalizes individual muscles or groups of muscles
  3. Epimysium
    is a connective tissue sheath dense collagenous connective tissue surrounding individual muscles
  4. Muscle fasciculi
    bundles of muscle fibers
  5. Perimysuim
    connective tissue surrounding muscle faasciculi
  6. Endomysium
    is a layer of reticular fibers surrounding each muscle fiber
  7. Sarcolema
    the plasma membrane of muscle fiber
  8. Sarcoplasm
    Cytoplasm of a muscle fiber, excluding the myofilaments
  9. Myofibril
    is a threadlike structure that extends from one end of a muscle fiber to the other
  10. Myofilament
    extremely fine molecular thread helping form the myofibrils of muscle; thick myofilaments are formed of myosin, and thin myofilaments are formed of actin
  11. Sarcomere
    highly form order units of actin and myosin myofilaments, which are joined end to end to form myofibrils (part of a myofibril between adjacent Z disk)
  12. Troponin
    molecules that are attached at specific intervals along actin myofilaments and have calcium binding sites, also attached to tropomysin; globular protein component of the actin myofilament
  13. Tropomysin
    molecules located along the grove between twisted strands of F actin; fibrous protein found as a component of the actin myofilamen
  14. When Calcium is not bound to troponin, tropomysin covers active sites on G actin
    When Calcium binds to troponin, tropomysin moves, exposing the active sites
  15. Isometric Contractions
    the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
  16. Isotonic Contractions
    the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes
  17. Concentric Contractions
    • are isotonic contractions is which muscle tension increases and mucsle shortens
    • ie. flexing elbow with weight in hand
  18. Eccentric Contractions
    • are isotonic contractions in which tension is maintained as muscle lenghtens
    • ie. extending elbow with weight in hand
  19. Fatigue
    is the decrease capacity to do work and the reduced efficiency of performance that normally follows a period of activity
  20. Psychologic Fatigue
    involves the central nervous system and is the most common type of fatigue. Muscles are capable of functioning, but the individual "perceives" that additional muscular work is not possible
  21. Muscular Fatigue
    Results from ATP depletion. Without adequate ATP levels in muscle fibers, cross-bridges, and ion transport do not function normally. The tension that a muscle is capable of producing declines
  22. Physiologic contracture
    Extreme muscular Fatigue; temporary inablility of a muscle to either contract or relax because of depletion of ATP so that active transport of calcium ions into the sacroplasmic reticulum cannot occur
  23. The energy required to produce ATP ccomes from 3 sources:
    • 1. Creatine Phosphate
    • 2. Anaerobic Respiration
    • 3. Aerobic Respiration
  24. Slow-Twitch Oxidative (SO) Fibers
    The most fatige resistant because the can produce many ATP to support muscle contraction. Have high aerobic capacity and low anerobic capacity to generate ATP, have many mitochondria, capillaries, myoglobin content. Appears red, generally located in postural muscles and lower limbs
  25. Fast-Twitch Oxidative Glycolytic (FOG) Fibers
    Have intermediate fatigue resistance deriving ATP from oxidative and glycolytic processes. Have intermediate aerobic capacity and high anaerobic capacity. Have many mitochondria, capillaries and high myoglobin content. Generally predominate in lower limbs
  26. Fast-Twitch Glycolytic (FG) Fibers
    Are the most fatiguable fibers because they produce few ATP, have few mitochondria, capillaries and little myoglobin content. Have low aerobic capacity and the highest anaerobic capacity. Appear white and generally predominate in upper limbs; Functions in rapid, intense movements of short duration
  27. Anaerobic Respiration
    does not require oxygen and results in the breakdown of glucose to yeild ATP and lactic acid; includes glycolysis, is less efficient, but is much faster and only available for short period of time
  28. Aerobic Respiration
    requires oxygen and breakdown glucose to produce ATP, carbon dioxide, and water. Is ore efficient, uses a greater variety of energy sources like fatty acids and amino acids; include citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
  29. Skeletal Muscle
    Attached to bones, very long and cylindrical, multinueclate, striated, both voluntary and involuntary (reflexes), not capable of spontaneous contractions and function in body movement
  30. Smooth Muscle
    Located in walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, eyes, glands, and skin, spindle-shape, single nucleus centrally located, preform gap junctions in some visceral smooth muscle cells together, no striations and completely involuntary
  31. Cardiac Muscle
    Makes up the heart, cylindrical and branched, single nucleated centrally located, intercalated disks join cells to one another, striated, involuntary, pumps blood