Chapter 4 (Part 2)

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Chapter 4 (Part 2)
2013-01-17 20:38:12
Common Ultrasound Terms

Cross Sectional Anatomy
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  1. Acoustic Enchancement
    Definition: "increased echo amplitude" or "posterior through transmission" visualized posterior to a structure that does't attenuate (decrease, stop, impede, or absorb) the sound beam. Considered a type of sonographic artifact.

    Example: Bright posterior through transmission can be visualized posterior to the urinary bladder.
  2. What does ALARA mean?
    As Low As Reasonably Achievable

    Definition: the prudent use of diagnostic sonography; dictates the output level abd exposure time to ultrasound is minimized while obtaining diagnostic data.

    Example: always consider ALARA when scanning. The thermal index (TI) and mechanical index (MI) are components of ultrasound bioeffects that should be monitored while scanning. The TI and MI values are usually located in the upper right side of the display screen.
  3. Anterior (ventral)
    Definition: Situated at toward the front. A structure in front of another structure.

    Exmaple: 1)The liver is sitauted anteriorly in the body 2) The body of the pancrease is anterior o portions of the: spleenic vein, superior mesenteric artery; left renal vein, abdominal artery, and spine 3) The head of the pancrease is anterior to the inferior vena cava.
  4. Acoustic Impedance
    Definition: resistance a material provides to the passage of sound waves.

    Example: Bones portray more acoustic impedance than tissue
  5. Acoustic Shadows
    "Reduce echo amplitude" or echo "drop off" posterior to a structure that attenuates (decreases, stops, impedes, or absorbs) th sound beam. Margins of the shadow ar genernally sharp and well-defined. Considered a type of songraphic artifact.

    Example: Black posterior shadowing can be visualized posterior to the fetal femur.
  6. Anechoic
    Defnition: Trm used to describe an echo-free appearance on a sonographic image

    Example: A true cyst appears anechoic
  7. Artifact
    Definition: Image artifacts are echo features or structures observed on ultrasound images that are unassociated with the image being imaged

    Example: Acoustic shadows are one type of sonographic artifact
  8. Ascites
    Definition: Accumulation of serous fluid anywhere in the abdominopelvic cavity.

    Example: Acsites may be visualized int eh posterior cul-de-sac of the abdominopelvic cavity
  9. Attenuation
    Definition: Decrease in the intensity of the sound beam as it passes through a structure, caused by absorption, scatter, or beam diverence.

    Example: The density, compostion, and angle of the sound beam when it strikes an object determine how much of the sound beam is attenuated
  10. Axial (short axis) (view or sectional)
    Definition: At right angles to longitudinal sections

    Example: Axial views of the aorta may be seen in tranverse scanning plane images. Axial sections of the pancreas can be visualized in sagittal scanning plane images of the mid hypogastrium.
  11. Beam Divergence
    Definition: Widening of the sound beam as it travels.

    Example: The pryamid appearance of an ultrasound image typifies beam divergence
  12. Calculi/"stones"
    Definition: Concentration of mineral salts that may accompany some disease processes.

    Example:Calculi are often visualized within the gallbaldder as bright, movable, structures that vary in size and cast posterior shadows.
  13. Calipers (electronic)
    Definition: Two or more measurement cursors that can be manipulated to calibrate the distance between echoes of interest on the imaging screen

    Example: Measurement calipers are used to obtain length, width, and anteroposterior measurements to provide dimensions or total volume of a structure of interest.
  14. Color Flow Doppler
    Definition: Doppler shift information in a two dimensional presentation superimposed on a real-time gray scale anatomic cross-sectional image

    Example: Flow directions are presented as different colors on the ultrasound display screen
  15. Complex Mass
    Definition: Abnormal mass within the body composed of both tissue and fluid

    Example: A complex mass is classified as an abnormal tissue and fluid collection within the body that disrupts the otherwise normal echo pattern of an organ parenchyma.
  16. Contralateral
    Definition: sitauted on or affecting the other side

    Example: The ovaries are contralateral organs
  17. Contrast
    Definition: A comparsion to show differences

    Example: An ultrasound image produces a preponderance of dark and light comparative gray scale tones
  18. Coronal scanning planes
    Definition: Any plane parallel to the long axis of the body and perpendicular to sagittal scanning planes.

    Example: A coronal scanning plane image demonstrates the anatomy visualized in a lateral to medial dimension and superior to inferior dimension.
  19. Coupling Agent
    Definition: Substances used to reduce air between the ultrasound transducer and the surface of the skin.

    Example: Gel is a typical agent used in sonography
  20. Crura of Diaphragm
    Defintion: Right and left crus or fibromuscular bands arising from the lumbar vertebrae that insert into the central tendon of the diaphragm

    Example: The crura of the diaphragm are often visualized on ultrasound images as curvilinear structures immediately adjacent to the spine. Their sonographic appearance varies from bright to hypoechoic relative to adjacent structures.
  21. Cystic
    Definition: Describes the sonographic appearance of a fluid collection within the body that doesn't meet the criteria to be considered a true cyst.

    Example: Ascites are considered to be cystic in nature
  22. Deep
    Defnition: Internal. Situated away from the surface

    Example: the kidneys are deep structures within the body
  23. Deoth of Penetration
    Definition: The maximum distance the sound beam travels from the transducer through a medium

    Example: The greter the intensity of the ultrasound beam, the greater the distance the beam will travel through a medium. The greater the attenuation of the medium, the less the distance of travel
  24. Diffuse Disease
    Definition: Infiltrative disease throughout an organ that disrupts the otherwise normal sonographic appearance of organ parechyma

    Example: Infiltrative disease alters the normal echo pattern throughout an organ
  25. Distal
    Definition: Situated furthest away from the point of origin

    Example: The abdominal aorta is distal to the thoracic aorta
  26. Doppler (effect)
    Definition: Change in observed sound frequency caused by relative motion between the source of the sound or reflector and the oberserver

    Example: doppler is used to detect blood flow through vessels. It detects not only the presence of flow but also the direction of flow by measuring the difference in the frequency of the reflected sound compared with the transmitted sound
  27. Echogenic
    Definition: describes a structure that is able to produce echoes or echo pattern. Hyperechoic, hypoechoic, and anechoic are terms used to quantify either an abundance or absence of echoes displayed by a structure in a sonographic image.

    Example: body structures are echogenic or capable of producing echoes
  28. Echopenic
    Defintion: few echoes

    Examples: the bile-filled gallbladder may appear echopenic
  29. Echo texture
    Defintion: describes the sonographic appearance of soft tissue structures within the body

    Examples:Normal organ parenchyma (soft tissue) is characterized sonographically as homogenous or uniform in echo texture. If disrupted or changed by disease, the parenchyma typically assumes an irregular or hetergeneous echo texture or pattern. The nature of this change may be diffuse disease (infiltrative; focal) or localized disease (mass or multiple masses circumscribed to a specific area.)
  30. Extraorgan pathology
    Definition: abonormal disease process that orginates outside of an organ

    Example: an extrahepatic mass may be visualized originating outside of an organ causing abnormalities such as displacement of other organs and structures, obstruction of other organs or structures from view, internal invagination of organ capsules, and discontinuity of organ capsules.
  31. Focal/multifocal change
    Definition: disease process confined to isolated area(s) of an organ

    Example: a focal area of altered echo pattern may be visualized in only part of an organ
  32. Focal zone
    Definition: the point at which the sound beam is the narrowest and the resolution is the best

    Example: different transducers haev different depths where their focus or focal zone id optimal. Therefore, the depth of a structure (of interest) within the body determines which transducer should be used.
  33. Gray Scale
    Definition: scale of achromatic colors having multiple graduations from white to black

    Example: sonographic display format where echo amplitude (intensity) is recorded and presented as variations in brightness of shades of gray
  34. Heterogeneous
    Defintion: describes an irregular or mixed echo pattern of organ parenchyma on a songraphic image

    Example: an organ can appear hetergeneous when pathology disrupts its otherwise normal, uniform sonographic appearance.
  35. Homogeneous
    Definition: describes uniform or similar echo patterns of prgan parenchyma on a songraphic image

    Example: an organ's homogeneous appearance is disrupted by pathology
  36. Hyperechoic
    Definition: comparative term used to describe an area in a sonographic image where the echoes are brighter relative to surrounding areas

    Examples: the pancreas usually appears hyperechoic relative to the liver
  37. Hypoechoic
    Definition: comparative term used to describe an area in a songraphic image where the echoes are not as bright relative to surrounding structres

    Example: the kidney typically appears hypoechoic relative to the liver
  38. Inferior (caudal)
    Definition: toward the feet. Situated below or directed downward. A structure lower than another structure

    Example: the uterus issituated inferiorly in the body. The superior mesenteric artery is inferior to the celiac axis. The body of the pancreas is inferior to the esophageal gastric junction.
  39. Infiltrative disease
    Definition: diffuse disease process that spreads throughout an entire organ

    Example: the echo pattern of an organ is altered throughout due to an infiltrative disease
  40. Interface
    Definition: the boundary between two materials or structures

    Example: use the bright sonographic appearance of fat interfaces to differentiated body structures from each other
  41. Intraorgan pathology
    Defintion: abnormal disease process that originates within an organ

    Example: an intraorgan mass may be visualized originating within an organ and causing abnormalities such as disruption of the normal internal architecture, external bulging of the organ's capsule, and displacement or shifting of adjacent body structures.
  42. Intraperitoneal
    Definition: abdominopelvic structure enclosed in a sac formed by the parietal peritoneum

    Example: the liver (except for the bare posterior to the dome), gallbladder, spleen (except for the hilum), stomach, the majority of teh intestines, and the ovaries are considered intraperitoneal
  43. Ipsliateral
    Defintion: sitauted on or affecting the same side

    Example: the spleen and left kidnet are ipsilateral
  44. Isogenic/isosonic
    Definition: comparative term used to describe an area in a songraphic image where the echo patterns are equal in echogenicity

    Example: the spleen may appear isogenic relative to the liver
  45. Lateral
    Definition: pertaining to the right and left of the middle of midline of the body. Describes a structure situated at, on, or toward the side

    Example: the spleen is situated left laterally in teh body. The carotid arteries are lateral to the thyroid gland.
  46. Localized disease
    Definition: represents a circumscribed mass or multiple masses

    Example: masses may be classified as solid, cystic, or complex
  47. Long axis (view or sectional)
    Definition: respresents the longest length of a structure

    Example: it's standard parctice in sonography to measure the long axis section of most structures
  48. Longitudinal (view or sectional)
    Definition: pertains to length; lengthwise

    Example: longitudinal views of the aorta may be seen in coronal or sagittal scanning plane images. A longitudinal section of the splenic vein can be visualized in transverse scanning plane images of the mid hypogastrium
  49. Mass
    Definition: circumscribed disease process

    Example: a mass is defined according to its composition: solid, cystic, or complex
  50. Medial
    Definition: situated at, on, or toward the middle or midline of the body

    Example: The spine is sitauted medially within the body.
  51. Medium
    Definition: any material through which sound waves travel

    Example: most fluid collections are nonattenuating mediums, whereas bone is an attenuating medium
  52. Mesentery
    Definition: a double fold of peritoneum that connects intraperitoneal organs to the abdominal cavity wall

    Example: galbladder position is variable due to its long mesentery
  53. Mirror image artifact (non-Doppler)
    Definition: the sonographic image of a structure is duplicated in an atypical position and appears as a mirror image of the original

    Example: mirror images usually occur when scanning structures that share a distinctly curved interface, such as the interface between the diaphragm and liver and diaphragm and spleen
  54. Necrotic
    Definition: degeneration or "death" of tissue

    Example: many complex masses are described as necrotic
  55. Neoplasm
    Definition: new, abnormal growth of existing tissues; either benign or malignant

    Example: a neoplasm is characterized as a tumor or mass
  56. Orthogonal
    Defintion: at right angles; perpendicular

    Exmaple: coronal planes are orthogonal to sagittal planes
  57. Parenchyma
    Defintion: tissue composing an organ

    Exmaple:normal organ parenchyma appears homogeneous on an ultrasound image
  58. Peritoneum
    Definition: thin sheet of tissue that lines the peritoneal cavity and secretes serous fluid, ehich serves as a lubricant and facilitates free movement between organs. Classified as parietal (portion of lining that forms a closed sac) and visceral (portion of lining that directly covers organs and various body structures). Characterized as intraperitoneal (inside the sac) and retroperitoneal (posterior or behind the sac).

    Example: structures enclosed and generally covered by peritoneum inclue the liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, majority of the intestines, and ovaries. Structures behind and only anterior surfaces are covered by peritoneum include the pancreas, inferior vena cava, abdominal aorta, urinary system, colon, and uterus.
  59. Pleural effusion
    Definition: a collection of fluid inside the lung

    Example: a pleural effusion appears echoic and hyperechoic relative to the bright appearance of the adjacent ribs
  60. Posterior (dorsal)
    Definition: situated at or directed toward the back. A structure behind another structure

    Example: the kidneys are situated posteriorly in the body. The inferior vena cava is directly posterior to the head of the pancreas.
  61. Promixal
    Definition: situated closest to the point of origin or attachment

    Example:the commom hepatic duct is proximal to the bile duct
  62. Retroperitoneum
    Definition: area of the abdominalpelvic cavity located behind or posterior to the peritoneum

    Example: structures poesterior to the peritoneum include the pancreas, inferior vena cava, abdominal aorta, urinary system, adrenal glands, colon, and uterus. Only their anterior surfaces are in contact with the pariteal peritioneal lining.
  63. Reverberation
    Definition: ultrasound image artifact caused when sound waves pass through and beyond a structure whose acoustic impedance is noticeably different than an adjacent structure, causing a huge amount  of reflection back to the transducer

    Example: reverberation is a common artifact seen on ultrasound images when scanning intercostally. Generally, an image of a structure (in this case a rib) is repeated, with the repeated images taken at an equal distances from the others.
  64. Midsagittal and parasagittal scanning planes
    Definition: any plane to the long axis of the body and perpendicular to coronal scanning planes

    Example: a sagittal scanning plane image demonstrates the anatomy visualized in an anterior-to-posterior (or posterior-to-anterior) dimension and superior-to-inferior dimension
  65. Septations
    Definition: thin, membranous inclusion(s) within a mass

    Example: single or multiple septation may be visualized in cystic or complex masses
  66. Solid mass
    Definition: abnormal mass within the body composed of one thing, tissue

    Example:a solid mass is classified as an abnormal tissue collection within the body that disrupts the otherwise normal echo pattern of organ parenchyma on an ultrasound image
  67. Sonogram
    Definition: pictorial record with ultrasound

    Example: image records representative of the findings during an ultrasound examination
  68. Sonographer
    Definition: highly skilled allied-health professional qualified by techonologic education to perform ultrasound examinations of patients and document the results under the supervision of a physician

    Example: sonographers are responsible for gathering pertinent data during an ultrasound examination and documenting the necessary representative images of the study for physician imterpretation or diagnosis
  69. Sonologist
    Definition: the physician who interprets a sonogram

    Example: during an ultrasound examination, a sonologist may scan and take images or use images provided by a sonographer to ultimately make a diagnosis based on the ultrasound findings.
  70. Superficial
    Defintion: External. Situated on or toward the surface.

    Example: the testicles are superficial structures. The thyroid is a superficial gland.
  71. Superior (cranial)
    Definition: toward the head. situated above or directed upward. a structure higher than another structure.

    Example: the lungs are situated superiorly in the body. The diaphragm is the superior margin of the abdominopelvic cavity
  72. Systemic
    Definition: pertains to the body as a whole

    Example: systemic circulation transports blood from the heart to all parts of the body, except for the lungs, and back again
  73. TGC (time-gain compensation)
    Definition: increase in receiver gain with time to compensate for loss in echo amplitude, usually due to attenuationm with depth

    Example: most ultrasound machines include a group of sliding potentimeters to control the amplification of received echoes. Most ultrasound displays include a TGC curve, which is a graphic display of the setting of the receiver's gain controls.
  74. Through transmission
    Definition: "increased echo amplitude" or "acoustic enchancement" visualized posterior to a structure that doesn't attenuate the sound beam. considered a type fo sonographic artifact.

    Example: a true cyst must exhibit posterior through transmission
  75. Transducer (ultrasound)
    Definition: a device capable of converting electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa

    Example: untrasound transducers include linear sequential array and curved linear array. Annular array, sector-pahse array, and single element. Transesophageal, intraoperative, and endocavital
  76. Transmission
    Definition: term implying passage of energy through a material

    Example:a sonographic image is the result of configured transmissions
  77. Transverse scanning planes
    Definition: any plane perpendicular to the long axis of the body

    Example: a traverse scanning plane image demonstrates the anatomy visualized in an anterior-to-posterior (or posterior-to-anterior) dimension and right-to-left dimension or lateral-to-medial dimension and anterior-to-posterior dimesion
  78. True cyst (simple cyst)
    Dfinition:abnormal mass within the body composed of fluid

    • Example: to be classified as a true cyst, the mass must mee 3 specific sonographic appearance criteria: 1) anechoic 2) well-defined and thin, smooth walls 3) exhibit posterior through transmission. If not, the mass is characterized as cystic in nature.
    • Either way, a true cyst or cystic mass may disrupt the otherwise normal echo pater of an organ parenchyma
  79. Ultrasound
    Dfinition: sound fequencies above 20 kilohertz or above the range of human hearing

    Example: used to obtain an ultrasonogram. which is any image produced with ultrasound