CSET 119: Cell and Organismal Biology

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CSET 119: Cell and Organismal Biology
2013-07-07 23:37:09

Science CSET
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  1. Describe organelles and explain their function in the cell
    • nucleus - contains the DNA
    • ribosomes - responsible for protein synthesis
    • rough endoplasmic reticulum - attached ribosomes produce membrane proteins and secretory proteins, produces new membrane 
    • smooth ER - synthesis of lipids and other functions 
    • golgi apparatus - receives, refines, stores and distributes chemical products of the cell
    • lysosome - sac of digestive enzymes
    • vacuoles - sacs that bud from the ER, golgi or plasma membrane, stores organic nutrients, absorbs water to cause cells to expand 
    • chloroplasts - perform photosynthesis
    • mitochondria - sites of cellular respiration
  2. Relate the structure of organelles and cells to their function
    • nucleus - bordered by double membrane nuclear envelope with pores that allow certain  materials to pass between the nucleus and cytoplasm
    • ribosomes - small dots outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm for protein synthesis, some are attached to ER making proteins for the membranes or secretions
    • ER - connected to the nuclear envelope, membrane separates its internal compartment from the surrounding fluid in the cytoplasm
    • golgi apparatus - works closely with ER and receives products made by ER
    • chloroplast - partitioned into 3 major compartments by internal membranes for PS to occur
    • mitochondria - envelope of two membranes
  3. Identify and contrast animal and plant cells
    • animal:
    • lysosomes

    • plant:
    • chloroplasts 
    • vacuole 
    • cell wall
  4. Explain the conversion, flow and storage of energy of the cell
    food molecules are broken down to make energy in the form of ATP which is used to build other molecules which can be stored
  5. Identify the function and explain the importance of mitosis and meiosis as processes of cellular and organismal reproduction
    • mitosis:
    • produces two genetically identical diploid cells
    • means of asexual reproduction, especially for unicellular organisms 
    • the source of new cells when a multicellular organism grows and develops 

    • meiosis:
    • produces four genetically different haploid cells 
    • how sexually reproductive organisms produce gametes
  6. Compare single-celled and multicellular organisms, noting the role of the cell differentiation in the development of multicellular organisms
    • single-celled:
    • do everything you would expect a living organism to do

    • multicellular:
    • depend on communication and cooperation among specialized cells
    • cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks
  7. Describe the levels of organization (eg cells, tissues, organs, systems, organisms) in plants and animals
    • cells - collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings 
    • tissues - group of similar cells that perform a particular function 
    • organs - groups of tissue that work together 
    • organ systems - group of organs that work together to perform a specific function 
    • organisms - any continuous mass living system
  8. Describe the structures and functions of the circulatory system
    • heart, blood vessels, blood 
    • brings oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells
    • fights infection 
    • removes cell wastes 
    • helps to regulate body temperature
  9. Describe the structures and functions of the reproductive system
    • testes, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, penis
    • ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina
    • produces reproductive cells
    • nurtures and protects developing embryo in females
  10. Describe the structures and functions of the nervous system
    • brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
    • recognizes and coordinates the body's response to changes in its internal and external environments
  11. Describe the structures and functions of the skeletal system
    • bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendon 
    • supports the body 
    • protects internal organs
    • allows movement 
    • stores mineral reserves 
    • provides a site for blood cell formation
  12. Explain the major structures and their functions in vascular and nonvascular plants
    • vascular:
    • xylem - carries water upward from roots to every part of the plant, made of tracheid cells with thick cell walls that resist pressure
    • phloem - transports solutions of nutrients and carbs produced by photosynthesis 
    • roots - underground organs that absorb water and minerals 
    • leaves - photosynthetic organs that contain bundles of vascular tissue
    • stems - supporting structures that connect roots and leaves, carrying water and nutrients between them 

    • nonvascular:
    • sporophyte - produce haploid spores, grow at top of gametophyte
    • gametophyte - produces gametes, carries out most of the plant's photosynthesis to supply water and nutrients 
    • rhizoids - long, thin cells that anchor them to the ground and absorb water and minerals from the soil
  13. Describe the life processes of various plant groups, including, but not limited to, reproduction, photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration
    • reproduction: sexual or asexual 
    • photosynthesis: the synthesis of sugar from light, carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen as a waste product 
    • respiration: plant obtains energy by undergoing a biochemical process in which oxygen combines with glucose to release water, carbon dioxide and ATP
    • transpiration: plants release water by evaporation, happens during photosynthesis and respiration
  14. Explain the reproductive processes in flowering plants
    • flowering plants are called angiosperms
    • bear their seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed 
    • flowers are unique reproductive organs that attract pollinators 
    • flowers contain ovaries which surround and protect the seeds 
    • after pollination the ovary develops into a fruit, which protects the seed and aids in its dispersal