Micro Chptr 8& 10

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Micro Chptr 8& 10
2013-01-07 00:42:08
Chapter 10

Nursing Micro
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  1. What are the 3 elements to metabolism?
    • Catabolism
    • Anabolism
    • Enzymes
  2. What is catabolism?
    • Breakdown of complex organic molecules to extract energy
    • Ex: glucose in humans
  3. What is Anabolism?
    The use of energy to synthesize macromolecules and cell structures from precursors
  4. Catabolism and anabolism happen...
    ...at the same time
  5. What is the function of an enzyme?
    Catalyst for chemical reactions
  6. What are the different structures of an enzyme?
    • Simple
    • Conjugated
    • 3-D features
  7. What does a simple enzyme consist of?
    A protein alone
  8. What does a conjugated enzyme consist of?
    A protein and a nonprotein
  9. What are some 3D features of an enzyme's structure?
    • Enable specificity
    • Ex: active site or catalytic site
  10. Conjugated enzymes contain a               cofactor,               , or both in order for it to function as a                .
    metallic; coenzyme; catalyst
  11. Specific active sites (amino acids) arise due to...
    the folding of the protein (enzyme)
  12. What happens once the enzyme reaction is complete?
    The product is released and the enzyme reused
  13. What do cofactors in conjugated enzymes do?
    bind to and activate the enzyme
  14. Transient carrier?
    • Alter a substrate by removing a chemical group from one substrate and adding it to another substrate
    • Ex: vitamins
  15. What is an exoenzyme?
    enzyme that resides on the outside of a cell
  16. What is an endoenzyme?
    enzyme that works inside a cell
  17. What does constitutive mean?
    The more you add the greater the reaction
  18. What are 3 types of reactions?
    • Condensation
    • Hydrolysis
    • Transfer reactions
  19. Condensation reactions are associated with which reaction?
    Anabolic reactions
  20. Hydrolysis reactions are associated with which reactions?
    Catabolic reactions
  21. What are transfer reactions?
    Transfer of electrons from one substrate to another
  22. What are metabolic pathways?
    Pathways designed for enzymes to undergo catabolism
  23. The different metabolic pathways are regulated by which enzymes?
    The enzymes that catalyze the reactions
  24. What is repression?
    End product turns system off so no more product is made
  25. What are some enzyme characteristics?
    • Most are composed of protein
    • Makes metabolic reactions fast enough to sustain life
    • Provide an active sites called substrates 
    • Are much larger in size than their substrates
    • Are not used up or permanently changed by reaction
    • Can be recycled
    • Greatly affected by temp and pH
    • Can be regulated by feedback and genetic mechanisms
  26. What is Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?
    End product of catabolism
  27. What is a redox reaction?
    Reduction and oxidation reaction
  28. What does EMP stand for?
  29. EMP results are the same as?
    Glycolysis results
  30. TCA cycle is another name for?
    Kreb cycle
  31. At the end of glucose metabolism, how many ATP is left?
    6 ATP
  32. What is glycolysis?
    Oxidation of glucose
  33. What is generated from glycolysis?
    Water, 2 ATP, and 2 Pyruvic acid molecules
  34. Where are ATP stored in Eukaryotes?
    In the mitochondria
  35. Where are ATP stored in prokaryotes?
    In the cytoplasmic membrane
  36. What is the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration?
    Nitrate or nitrite
  37. What is the final electron acceptors in fermentation?
    Organic compounds
  38. What is the ATP result like in fermentation?
    fermentation yields a small amount of ATP compared to respiration
  39. What are the two types of fermenters?
    • Facultative anaerobes
    • Strict fermenters
  40. What is an example of facultative anaerobes?
    E coli
  41. What is an example of strict fermenters?
    Yeast (requires O2)
  42. What is gluconeogenesis?
    Occurs in liver when the glucose supply is low. Makes new glucose
  43. What are macromolecules?
    cellular building blocks
  44. What is genetic engineering?
    The process of opening the original DNA, inserting new DNA and creating something completely new.
  45. What are some characteristics of restriction endonuclease?
    • Originates in bacterial cells
    • Natural function is to protect bacterium from foreign DNA
    • Recognizes 4-10 base pairs
    • Cleaves DNA at the phosphate-sugar bond
    • Ex: EcoRI from E coli
  46. What is Ligase?
    The closing of DNA by linking together DNA fragments and rejoining phosphate-sugar bonds
  47. What does reverse transcriptase do?
    • converts RNA to DNA
    • Ex: Complementary DNA (cDNA)
    • --mRNA to cDNA
  48. What is electrophoresis?
    Separation of DNA based on size by use of electricity. Used for characterizing DNA fragment and fingerprinting
  49. What is complementation?
    When complementary sites on two different nucleic acids bind or hybridize
  50. Probes are single-stranded and have...
    ...a known sequence
  51. What is the Sanger method?
    Another process for sequencing nucleotides
  52. What do cloning vectors do?
    • Carry a significant piece of the donor DNA
    • Ex: Plasmids, phages
  53. Name 3 recombinant organisms
    • 1.Modified bacteria and viruses
    • 2.Transgenic plants
    • 3.Transgenic animals
  54. What is Pseudomonas syringae?
    Bacteria that prevents crystals from forming on plants
  55. What is Pseudomonas fluorescens?
    contains an insecticide gene
  56. What is a knockout mouse?
    Mouse genetically engineered for genetic defects
  57. What is gene therapy?
    Treatment to repair a genetic defect