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What are the 3 elements to metabolism?
What is catabolism?
- Breakdown of complex organic molecules to extract energy
- Ex: glucose in humans
What is Anabolism?
The use of energy to synthesize macromolecules and cell structures from precursors
Catabolism and anabolism happen...
...at the same time
What is the function of an enzyme?
Catalyst for chemical reactions
What are the different structures of an enzyme?
- 3-D features
What does a simple enzyme consist of?
A protein alone
What does a conjugated enzyme consist of?
A protein and a nonprotein
What are some 3D features of an enzyme's structure?
- Enable specificity
- Ex: active site or catalytic site
Conjugated enzymes contain a cofactor, , or both in order for it to function as a .
metallic; coenzyme; catalyst
Specific active sites (amino acids) arise due to...
the folding of the protein (enzyme)
What happens once the enzyme reaction is complete?
The product is released and the enzyme reused
What do cofactors in conjugated enzymes do?
bind to and activate the enzyme
- Alter a substrate by removing a chemical group from one substrate and adding it to another substrate
- Ex: vitamins
What is an exoenzyme?
enzyme that resides on the outside of a cell
What is an endoenzyme?
enzyme that works inside a cell
What does constitutive mean?
The more you add the greater the reaction
What are 3 types of reactions?
- Transfer reactions
Condensation reactions are associated with which reaction?
Hydrolysis reactions are associated with which reactions?
What are transfer reactions?
Transfer of electrons from one substrate to another
What are metabolic pathways?
Pathways designed for enzymes to undergo catabolism
The different metabolic pathways are regulated by which enzymes?
The enzymes that catalyze the reactions
What is repression?
End product turns system off so no more product is made
What are some enzyme characteristics?
- Most are composed of protein
- Makes metabolic reactions fast enough to sustain life
- Provide an active sites called substrates
- Are much larger in size than their substrates
- Are not used up or permanently changed by reaction
- Can be recycled
- Greatly affected by temp and pH
- Can be regulated by feedback and genetic mechanisms
What is Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?
End product of catabolism
What is a redox reaction?
Reduction and oxidation reaction
What does EMP stand for?
EMP results are the same as?
TCA cycle is another name for?
At the end of glucose metabolism, how many ATP is left?
What is glycolysis?
Oxidation of glucose
What is generated from glycolysis?
Water, 2 ATP, and 2 Pyruvic acid molecules
Where are ATP stored in Eukaryotes?
In the mitochondria
Where are ATP stored in prokaryotes?
In the cytoplasmic membrane
What is the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration?
Nitrate or nitrite
What is the final electron acceptors in fermentation?
What is the ATP result like in fermentation?
fermentation yields a small amount of ATP compared to respiration
What are the two types of fermenters?
- Facultative anaerobes
- Strict fermenters
What is an example of facultative anaerobes?
What is an example of strict fermenters?
Yeast (requires O2)
What is gluconeogenesis?
Occurs in liver when the glucose supply is low. Makes new glucose
What are macromolecules?
cellular building blocks
What is genetic engineering?
The process of opening the original DNA, inserting new DNA and creating something completely new.
What are some characteristics of restriction endonuclease?
- Originates in bacterial cells
- Natural function is to protect bacterium from foreign DNA
- Recognizes 4-10 base pairs
- Cleaves DNA at the phosphate-sugar bond
- Ex: EcoRI from E coli
What is Ligase?
The closing of DNA by linking together DNA fragments and rejoining phosphate-sugar bonds
What does reverse transcriptase do?
- converts RNA to DNA
- Ex: Complementary DNA (cDNA)
- --mRNA to cDNA
What is electrophoresis?
Separation of DNA based on size by use of electricity. Used for characterizing DNA fragment and fingerprinting
What is complementation?
When complementary sites on two different nucleic acids bind or hybridize
Probes are single-stranded and have...
...a known sequence
What is the Sanger method?
Another process for sequencing nucleotides
What do cloning vectors do?
- Carry a significant piece of the donor DNA
- Ex: Plasmids, phages
Name 3 recombinant organisms
- 1.Modified bacteria and viruses
- 2.Transgenic plants
- 3.Transgenic animals
What is Pseudomonas syringae?
Bacteria that prevents crystals from forming on plants
What is Pseudomonas fluorescens?
contains an insecticide gene
What is a knockout mouse?
Mouse genetically engineered for genetic defects
What is gene therapy?
Treatment to repair a genetic defect