Carbohydrates

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
191596
Filename:
Carbohydrates
Updated:
2013-01-07 06:35:32
Tags:
Biology
Folders:

Description:
Advanced Higher Biology - Unit One - Carbohydrates
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is a building block of carbohydrate molecules?
    Glucose
  2. What elements are glucose made up of?
    C, H and O
  3. Draw the linear form of glucose
  4. What is the difference between alpha and beta glucose ring structures?
    An alpha glucose ring has the -OH group below carbon one, whereas a beta glucose ring has the -OH group above carbon one
  5. Is this an alpha or a beta ring glucose?
    Beta
  6. Is this an alpha or beta ring glucose?
    Alpha
  7. Can glucose molecules turn from alpha glucose to beta glucose and vice versa?  If so, how?
    Yes, interconversion betwen the two ring forms occurs through linear glucose eg alpha glucose could change into linear glucose which would then change into beta glucose.
  8. What is the equilibrium between alpha and beta glucose rings?
    Around 64% is beta and 36% is alpha
  9. What bonds hold glucose molecules together?
    Glycosidic bonds
  10. What type of reaction occurs when glucose molecules bind together?  What type of molecule is released?
    • Dehydration synthesis reaction (condensation reaction)
    • Water
  11. Is this an α-1,4-glycosidic bond or a β-1,4-glycosidic bond?
    α-1,4-glycosidic bond
  12. Is this an α-1,4-glycosidic bond or a β-1,4-glycosidic bond?
    β-1,4-glycosidic bond
  13. What form of glucose is starch made out of?
    Alpha glucose monomers
  14. What are the two forms of starch?
    Amylose and Amylopectin
  15. What is amylose? 
    It is a form of starch
  16. What type of glucose molecules is amylose made up of?
    Alpha glucose molecules
  17. What type of bond is formed between the molecules in amylose?
    α-1,4-glycosidic bonds
  18. What is the structure of amylose?
    It is a long, linear molecule with no side branches.  Amylose is twisted and forms a long unbranched helix.
  19. What is amylopectin?
    A form of starch
  20. What type of glucose molecules is amylopectin made up of?
    Alpha glucose molecules
  21. What type of bond is between the molecules?
    The main bonds are α-1,4-glycosidic bonds but there are α-1,6-glycosidic bonds between the main chains and side branches that occur every 25-30 units
  22. What is the structure of amylopectin?
    It has a branched structure
  23. What is glycogen?
    Glycogen is the storage carbohydrate in animal cells
  24. What type of glucose molecules is glycogen made up of?
    Alpha glucose molecules
  25. What type of bond is between the molecules?
    The main bonds are α-1,4-glycosidic bonds but there are α-1,6-glycosidic bonds between the main chains and side branches that occur every 10-12 units
  26. What is the structure of glycogen?
    It has a branched structure
  27. How does glycoen release energy more quickly than amylopectin?
    Glucose units are removed from the ends of the chain of a molecule when required.  Glycogen has a higher degree of branching than amylopectin, so since there are more ends in glycogen glucose can be released quicker from glycogen molecules than from amylopectin molecules
  28. Why are storage carbohydrates important in relation to osmosis and water balance/osmoregulation?
    A high concentration of glucose tends to draw water into a cell by osmosis, leading to problems for the cell.  Starch and glycogen molecules are insoluble; they do not affect osmosis and so osmotic problems are avoided
  29. What is cellulose?
    Cellulose is the structural carbohydrate providing support and rigidity in plant cell walls
  30. What type of glucose molecules is it made up of?
    Beta glucose molecules
  31. What type of bonds are between the molecules?
    β-1,4-glyosidic bonds
  32. What is the structure of cellulose?
    A rigid straight chain with no branches (as every alternate glucose unit is inverted)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview