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What was the basis of support for the republican party?
- big bussiness
- lincoln and civil war
- Waving of the bloody shirt
What was GAR?
- Grand Army of the Republic
- union veterans of the civil war
What was waving of the bloody shirt?
blaming the democrats for the civil war
What was the basis of support for the democrats?
- solid south
- political machines- org. to help get parties elected
What was Tammany Hall?
biggest political machines
Who supported high tarriff?
republicans and big business
Who supported low tariff?
What is Hard/ Sound money? Supported by?
- backed by gold
- republicans and big business
What are greenbacks?
backed by governments credit
What is silver?
softer than gold, and more reliable than greenbacks
What is civil service?
ending government corruption
What is business reform?
government regulation of business
What were the results of the gilded age political parties?
- two parties-no major differences
- bland candidates
- party loyality
- -spoils system/ patronage
- -vote for party - not man or issues
- third parties- based on issues
- importance of farm vote
What is the best word to describe Grant's administration?
What was the whiskey ring?
secretary of treasury took bribes not to collect taxes from whiskey manufactors
What was credit mobilier?
union pacific railroad gave kickbacks to members of congress
What is a kickback?
a payment for favors
What was the tweed ring?
"Boss" tweed controlled Tammany hall and through it New York City and took NYC for millions of dollars
Who was Tomas Nast?
political cartoonist who helped break up the tweed ring
What were the results of corruption?
- revived democratic party
- split republican party
What did the liberal republicans do in 1872?
refused to support grant and nominated their own guy
Who were the stalwarts and halfbreeds?
- stalwarts were not that upset with corruption
- halfbreeds do not like corruption and wanted to reform
What was the Panic of 1873?
led to more interest in greenbacks and silver
What happened in Rutherford B. Hayes administration?
What happened in James A. Garfields administration?
assasinated in 1881 by a dissapointed office seeker
what happened was the pendleton act?
- Pendleton Act- set up the civil serivce system
- - governtment jobs would be based on ability ( take a test)
What was the election of 1884?
- Dirty campaign
- clevenland is the only democrat to be elected in 1800s
Who were mugwumps?
rebpulicans who refused to vote for Blaine (republican in 1884)
What happened with pensions under Cleveland?
- Paid to civil war veterans who had been wounded or killed
- men who had a pension rejected had congress vote them one
- cleveland veoted most of these pension bills
What was railroad reform?
Interstate commerce comminsion (ICC) set up to regulate railroads but was inneffective at first
tariff under cleveland?
- tariff had not been lowered since civil war
- cleveland wanted to lower tariff
- became major issue of election of 1888
What was billion dollar congress ?
fact that congress had a surplus of money
What was the sherman anti trust act?
- outlawed any company who hindered trade
- not enforced on monopolyies but was used against unions
What was Mckinley tariff?
highest tariff up to that point
What was the basis of industrialization?
- Natural resources
- agricultural advancements allowed more people to work in facrotries
- Labor supply- immigration
- government policy- Lassez faire and govt. assistance
What was Laissez-Faire?
government leaves buisiness alone
What was govnt. assiasstance of buissiness?
the gov. helped buisness but didnt regulate it
How did tech. improve in transportaion?
- electric street cars
Who inveteted telegraph, transatlantic cable, telephone, and radio?
What was the western union?
had a monoploy of telegraph business
Who invented sewing machine, elevatar, typewriter, film camera, and lightbulb?
What was the key to industrail growth?
How did railroads get financing?
- govnt. loans and land grants
What was consolidation of railroads?
small rrs were merged into a handful of larger ones
How what the railroad system corrupteed?
- most corrupt industry
- rrs hurt farmers and small businesses
Who was andrew Carnegie?
controlled steel industry
Who was John d rockefeller?
- standard oil trust
Who was jp morgan?
What did vanderbild, armour, pillsbury, and duke controll?
- canned meat
What is social darwinism?
- applies survival of the fittest to society and business
- opposed reforms to help poor
What was the gospel of wealth?
duty of wealthy to help those who will help themselves
What are the benefits of industrialization?
- mass production, wide distribution, efficient management
- more products, made cheaper, and more avialiable
- led to lower prices and higher standard of living
What are the costs of industrialization?
- elimination of compitition
- exploitation of workers
- influence over govt.
How was competition eliminated?
- trusts were monopolies limited competion
- people disliked trusts beacause wealth and power was in hands of a few- seen as undemocratic
What were labor problems?
- low wadges
- long hours
- no govt. assiastance
What were the reasons for low wadges?
- unskilled workers
- women and children worked
What was the National Labor Union?
first national labor union
Who founded the knights of labor?
terrance v. powederly
Who was the Knights of labor for? What was its purpose?
- all including women blacks and farmers
- worked for both labor and political issues
What was the Haymarket riot?
- Knights held a rally in Chiacago for 8 hr work day
- bomb expolded and killed several
- knights blamed and basically ended them
Who founded the American Federation of Labor?
What was the AFL for and what was its purpose?
- craft unions or skilled workers
- worked for basic labor issues
What was the only union to survive the panic of 1893?
What was the Railroad strike of 1877?
- caused partly by panic
- pres. Hayes sends troups to end it
What was the results if the Railroad strike?
helped turn public against unions
What was the Homestead Strike?
- Cause- Carnegie locked out workers from steel mill
- Harrison sends troups
- Result- stike ended and union broken
What caused the pullman strike?
pullman cut workers wadges and American Railway union led by Wugene V. Debs goes on stike
What was the govt. action in pullmans strike?
- Injunction- court order to end strike- debs ingroned
- Pres. clevenland sends troups
What were the results of pullmans strike?
- the injunction becomes major weapon against unions
- debs put in prison
What methods did business use against labor?
- yellow dog contract
- company towns
What was the yellow dog contract( Iron Clad Oath)?
worker promised not to join union in order to be hired
What was blacklists?
company put workers on a list so they would not be hired
What were lockouts?
wouldnt let workers in factory
What were strike breakers?
people to work in place of strikers
What were company towns?
if you worked for a company, you lived in the town owned by the company
Who was Horatio Alger?
- wrote novels for young boys
- said hard honest work equals success
Who was Henry George?
- progress and property
- poverty was the result of the growing pop. and limited land
Who was Edward Bellamy?
- Looking backward
- hero falls asleep in 1888 and wakes up in 2000 to a Utopian world
Who was Karl Marx?
- Das Kapital
- workers would overthrow owners and set up a socialist govt. and govt. would die out and communism would be set up
Who are anarchists?
beleive in no govt.
What was the concept of the new south?
industializing the south
What were the problems with the new south?
- had no money
- dependence on cash crops
- govt. policies
- a lack of cities
- a lack of education
- lost cause- south's obsession with civil war
What was the major industry that grew in the south?
What were the results of the new south?
- South remained economically backwards
- south remained overwhelmingly agri.
- most southerners black and white remained poor
- two thirds of southerners were sharecroppers
How much of the population lived in cities by 1900?
What are the problems with urban growth?
What was the cause of crime? Police force? Goal?
- cities established police forces
- to regulate crime, keep under control
Why were cities corrupt?
What is a tenement house?
buildings that poor people lived in, lots of people
What was the source of the new immigration? Problem?
- southern and eastern europe
- these immagrants were very different from avg. american and were discriminated
Who was Jacob Riis?
- How the other half lives
- detalied living condition of poor in city
What was Childrens Aid Socitey, YMCA, and salvation army?
org. that helped poor.
What was the social gospel movement?
christians had duty to help poor
What was a settlement house? Who had most famous?
- Built in the slum to help poor
- Jane Addams- Hull House
Who was Frederick Law Olmstead?
bulit public parks
Who was Louis Sullivan?
Who was Frank Loyd Wright?
- the buiding should fit enviorment
- most famous archi.
What was the industrial culture doing?
- Improved standard of living
- growing middle class
- Victorian culture
- Industrail age enviorment- entertainment music and sports
What was victorian culturre?
middle class values are the key to success