Biomed Module 11obj 1-5

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jnikrap
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191649
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Biomed Module 11obj 1-5
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2013-01-14 17:16:22
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biomed module 11 obj
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biomed module 11 obj. 1-5
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  1. ionotropic receptors
    channels that open and close in response to outside chemical signals
  2. metabotropic receptors
    proteins that change the internal biochemistry of the cell in response to outside chemical signals
  3. what are the two types of cells in the nervous system?
    Glial cells

    Neurons
  4. Glial cells
    • perform a structural and support role
    • they also remain capable of continued cell division (mitosis)
  5. Neurons
    • have two related features that other cells do not have
    • they can influence the flow of charges across the cell membrane, and use this property to manage the receipt, processing, and sending of information.
    • Second, they can often have voltage-gated ion channels, that aid in the manipulation of charges.
  6. True or False 

    The nervous system generates chemical potentials to regulate body activities.
    • False
    • The nervous system generates electrical potentials to regulate body activities.
  7. True or False
    The nervous system detects changes in the body's internal and external environments, interprets the changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions.
    True
  8. The nervous system is a prime example of how the body maintains __________.
    Homeostasis
  9. In most animals the entire __________ _______ is devoted to homeostasis.
    nervous system
  10. Regardless of whether it is positively or negatively controlled, what three elements are required in a homeostatic loop?
    •  receptor
    •  control center
    •  effector
  11. Receptor
    • Monitors controlled condition
    • Part of nervous system (Sensory)
  12. Control center
    • Receives input and provides output
    • Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
  13. Effectors
    • Brings about change in controlled condition
    • Part of nervous system (muscles and glands)
  14. Where are sensory receptors located?
    • surface of the skin
    • Taste buds of the mouth
    • retina of the eye
    • and many other places
  15. The effectors of the brain are...
    • smooth muscle
    • cardiac muscle
    • skeletal (volentary) muscle
    • glands
  16. Afferent pathways
    • pathways into the central nervous system
    • sensory is equivalent to afferent
  17. Efferent pathways
    • pathways out of the central nervous system
    • motor is equivalent to efferent
  18. Sensory information is received in the internal  or external environment and, through a process called __________, converted to a form the nervous system can use
    transduction
  19. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    • Cranial nerves
    • spinal nerves
    • ganglia
    • enteric plexi
    • sensory receptors
  20. Central nervous system (CNS)
    the brain and the spinal cord
  21. What are the two categories of effectors ?
    • Autonomic nervous system (ANS): effectors that are controlled automatically
    • Somatic motor system: effectors that we control consciously.
  22. Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    • comprises those effectors not under conscious control (does not include cerebral cortex)
    • The first structures encountered are the autonomic ganglia and nerves.
    • Then the info passes through one or several neurons of the ANS to the effectors: smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or glands 
  23. Somatic nervous system
    • comes form the Greek word "soma" - "body"
    • begins in cerebral and cerebellar cortex (the outer covering which form the bulk of the brains matter)
    • then passes through axons to the spinal cord or to brainstem centers controlling movement (for the face)
    • contact between nerve cells relay (synapes) information to another set of neurons call alpha motor neurons.
    • it is these motor neurons which make contact with skeletal muscle at the neuromuscular junction
  24. synapses
    • contact between nerve cells 
    • relay information to another set of neurons call alpha motor neurons
  25. In practice, we use the terms somatic motor system, _______ _______, and _______ _____ more or less interchangeably.
    voluntary muscle, Skeletal muscle
  26. The Central nervous system (CNS) is comprised of...
    ... the brain and the spinal cord.
  27. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is comprised of the ...
    • Cranial nerves III-XII
    • Spinal nerves
    • ganglia
    • enteric plexi
    • sensory receptors
  28. Ganglion (pl. ganglia)
    A collection of nerve cells in the PNS
  29. Nucleus
    a collection of nerve cells in the CNS

    (note that this is confusing: we are talking about a nucleus as a collection of nerve cells, each of which has its own nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane

    Also one CNS structure is called the basal ganglia, which is why many neuroscientists are trying to change the name to basal nuclei 
  30. Some scientists include the _______ ______ ______, which controls the motility and functions of the digestive organs, as a separate division, while others group it with the __________ _________ ________.
    enteric nervous system, autonomic nervous system 
  31. Plexus (pl. plexuses or plexi)
    a network of neurons located in the walls of digestive organs.

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