Ethics 220-5H

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Ethics 220-5H
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2013-01-07 21:05:09
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  1. 1.  Moral absolutism
    1.  Moral absolutism is the ethical theory that states there is one universal set of moral rules that can and should be followed by everybody (also referred to as hard universalism).
  2. 2. golden mean
    2. Aristotle’s concept of virtue as a relative mean between the extremes of excess and deficiency is called the golden mean.
  3. 3. altruism
    3.  Expressing concern regarding the interests and needs of others is known as altruism.
  4. 4. Asceticism
    4.  Asceticism is where a person denies oneself physical pleasure and/or indulgences.
  5. 5. begging the question
    5. An argument is circular if its conclusion is among its premises, if it assumes (either explicitly or not) what it is trying to prove. Such arguments are said to be guilty of the logical fallacy called begging the question.
  6. 6. institutionalized cruelty.
    6. Hallie’s term for the physical and psychological cruelty that has become so established it seems natural to both the victim and the victimizer is institutionalized cruelty. 
  7. 7.  Negative command
    7.  Negative command is Hallie’s term for a moral command that always involves a negative, such as “do not lie.”
  8. 8.  Pacifism
    8.  Pacifism is the belief that war and violence are morally wrong regardless of the circumstances.
  9. 9.  positive command
    9.  Hallie’s term positive command refers to a moral command to actively do something rather than merely refraining from doing something wrong.  For example, help people in distress.
  10. 10.  Silver Rule
    10.  A negative version of the Golden Rule called the Silver Rule teaches that you should not do to others what you would not want them to do to you.
  11. 11. social contract theory.
    11.  A type of social theory that was popular in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries that assumes humans in the early stages of society got together and agreed on contracts necessary for creating a society is called social contract theory.
  12. 12.  Descriptive ethics
    12.  Descriptive ethics is the practice of describing the ethical practices of a people without making an evaluative or judgmental statement.
  13. 13.  The divine command theory
    13.  The divine command theory suggests that since God has created the laws of morality, an act is right or wrong because it is consistent with the command of God.
  14. 14.  Ethical egoism
    14.  Ethical egoism is the theory that all people can and should seek their own self interests ignoring the interests of others.
  15. 15.  Ethics
    15. Ethics is the studying, questioning, and justification of moral rules.
  16. 16. ethics of conduct.
    16.  The study of moral rules pertaining to decisions about what course of action to take or “what to do” in a given situation is called ethics of conduct.
  17. 17.  The generic fallacy
    17.  The generic fallacy assumes that something can be fully explained by pointing to its original or first state of existence.
  18. 18.  Intuition
    • 18.  Intuition
    • is an experience of understanding that is independent of one’s reasoning, at least consciously.  Can also refer to a moment of understanding or insight.
  19. 19.  Metaethics
    • 19.  Metaethics
    • is an approach to ethics that refrains from making judgments but is rather focused on the meaning of words.
  20. 20.  Morality
    20.  Morality refers to the moral rules and attitudes that we live by or are expected to live by.
  21. 21.  Moral nihilism
    21.  Moral nihilism is the belief that there are no moral truths.
  22. 22.  Normative ethics
    22.  Normative ethics refers to the process of establishing norms or standards for human action and character.
  23. 23.  Ontology
    23.  Ontology is the philosophical discipline of investigating the nature and meaning of existence or being.
  24. 24.  Psychologicalaltruism
    24.  Psychological altruism is the theory that everyone is always unselfish and interested in the needs of others.
  25. 25.  Psychological egoism
    25.  Psychological egoism is the theory that everyone is always selfish and interested only in their own ends.
  26. 26.  Soft universalism
    • 26.  Soft universalism is an ethical theory that says even though humankind cannot agree on all moral rules and customs, there are a few bottom line virtues that we can agree on, even though we might express them in different
    • manners.
  27. 27.straw man argument
    27.  A logical fallacy that consists of attacking and disproving a theory that was invented for that purpose is called a straw man argument.
  28. 28. subjectivism
    28.  The ethical theory of subjectivism claims that your moral belief is right simply because you believe it and there are no shared moral standards.
  29. 29.  Communitarianism
    29.  Communitarianism is a moral and political theory that suggests individuals receive his or her identity from his or her community and can flourish only within the community.
  30. 30. contractarianism
    30.  The theory that only humans can have rights because only humans can enter into agreements and recognize duties springing from those agreements is called contractarianism.
  31. 31.  The dialectical method
    31.  The dialectical method was used by Socrates whereby through a series of interrogative questions and dialogue a student could be led to their own realization of truth.  Also called the Socratic method.
  32. 32. Ethics of virtue
    • 32. Ethics of virtue is the study of
    • moral traits pertaining to the building of character and being
  33. 33.  ethos
    33.  The moral rules, attitudes, and values of a culture is called that culture’s ethos
  34. 34. eudaimonia
    34.  The ancient Greeks term for the goal of human life is eudaimonia.  This term is also used to describe the goal of ethics and refers to well-being, contentment, and happiness.
  35. 35.  Existentialism
    • 35.  Existentialism
    • is the belief that all people have the freedom of will to determine their own way of life.
  36. 36. Plato's theory of forms
    36.  Plato’s theory of forms is a metaphysical theory suggesting that for all things on earth there is a higher form in a higher realm that gives meaning and existence to all things that we can experience through our senses.  For example, in the higher realm of forms there exists a perfect circle that gives meaning and existence to the imperfect circles that exist in the tangible world.
  37. 37. original position
    37.  According to the thought exercise called original position, people come together to re-envision their society by hypothetically going back in time and asking ourselves the simple question, “What kind of society would people choose if they could start all over again from the beginning?”
  38. 38. veil of ignorance
    38.  Because people would enter into the thought exercise of original position with the goal of structuring society in such a way as to protect their privilege, Rawls suggested that people had to enter into the discussion from behind the veil of ignorance where they would not know their position in the new society.
  39. 39.  Narrative ethics
    39.  Narrative ethics refers to both the idea that the fullness of morals is taught most completely in and through the use of stories and that stories have the power to form ethical character and inspire ethical action.
  40. 40.  Metanarratives
    40.  Metanarratives refers to those stories that are the defining and controlling stories that direct a society.
  41. 41. alternative stories
    41. Stories that are give a competing understanding of reality are called alternative stories
  42. 42. The ethics of domination
    42.  The ethics of domination can be defined as any act through which one person or groups of persons exercise authority over another person so as to subjugate that person or that person’s needs or resources to themselves.
  43. 43. liberty principle
    43.  Rawls’ liberty principle states that everyone should have the maximum number of freedoms as long as everyone else has those freedoms as well.
  44. 44. difference principle
    44.  According to the difference principle, Rawls suggested that any social, political, or economic inequality in society should be attached to positions that anyone can hold and should be to the benefit of the least well off in society.
  45. 45. biocentrism
    45.  The view that all living things have some degree of moral status is called biocentrism.
  46. 46.  Anthropocentrism
    46.  Anthropocentrism is the notion that only humans have moral status.
  47. 47. appeal to ignorance
    47.  The fallacy of arguing that the absence of evidence entitles us to believe a claim is true is called an appeal to ignorance.
  48. Don't ask me there is no #48
    Reserved for later use I suppose.
  49. 49. appeal to the person
    49.  The fallacy of arguing that a claim should be rejected solely because of the characteristics of the person who makes it is the appeal to the person.
  50. 50.  Applied ethics
    50.  Applied ethics is the application of moral norms and systems to specific moral issues or cases, particularly those in a profession such as medicine or law.
  51. 51. Emotivism
    51.  Emotivism is the view that moral utterances are neither true nor false but are expressions of emotions or attitudes.
  52. 52. ethics of care
    52.  A perspective on moral issues that emphasizes close personal relationships and moral virtues such as compassion, love, and sympathy is called ethics of care.
  53. 53.  Hasty generalization
    53.  Hasty generalization is the fallacy of drawing a conclusion about an entire group of people or things based on an undersized sample of the group.
  54. 54.  A moral statement
    54.  A moral statement is any statement affirming that either an action is right or wrong or a person is good or bad.
  55. 55.  A nonmoral statement
    55.  A nonmoral statement is any statement that does not affirm that an action is right or wrong or that a person is good or bad.
  56. 56.  Rule-egoism
    56.  Rule-egoism is the theory that to determine right action, you must see if an act falls under a rule that if consistently followed would maximize your self-interest.
  57. 57.  The slippery slope fallacy
    57.  The slippery slope fallacy is the using of dubious premises to argue that doing a particular action will inevitably lead to other actions that will result in disaster, so you should not do that first action.
  58. 58. virtue
    58.  A stable disposition or character trait that compels a person to act in a certain way according to some ideal or model of excellence is called a virtue.
  59. 59.  Angst
    59.  Angst is a term for anxiety or anguish, used by existentialist philosophers to describe a feeling of dread without any identifiable cause.
  60. 60. banality of evil
    60.  Hannah Arendt’s concept of how ordinary people can be persuaded through pressure from authorities or group pressure to harm innocent people, believing it to be normal and justifiable is called the banality of evil.
  61. 61.  Dualism
    61.  Dualism is the metaphysical theory that reality consists of matter and mind.  Also used as a term for any theory of opposite forces.
  62. 62. ethical pluralism
    62.  When several moral systems are at work simultaneously in a culture it is called ethical pluralism
  63. 63. hedonism
    63.   The seeking of pleasure as moral way of life is called hedonism.
  64. 64.  The paradox of hedonism
  65. 65.  Lex talionis
    • 65.  Lex talionis is Latin for the law of retaliation (an eye for an eye).  This is a form of retributivist ethical
    • theory.
  66. 66. Moral nihilism

    duplicate
    66.  Moral nihilism is the belief that there are no moral truths.

    duplicate
  67. 67. skepticism
    67.  The philosophical approach that we cannot obtain absolutely certain knowledge and so therefore we do not believe anything until there is sufficient evidence to support the belief is called skepticism.
  68. 68.  Veneer theory
    • 68.  Veneer theory suggests that moral values are nothing more than a thin social
    • veneer covering our basically selfish nature.
  69. 69.  Zoocentrism
    69.  Zoocentrism is the notion that both human and nonhuman animals have moral status.
  70. 70. duty of beneficence.
    70.  A moral obligation to benefit others is called the duty of beneficence.

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