psychology

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corn
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19167
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psychology
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2010-05-17 09:48:21
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final review
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over all chapters. Chapters 11,12,13,14,15,16
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  1. In encoding memory, which of the following do you use when you attempt to keep a mental picture of the information?
    visual codes
  2. The items that you have in your conscious mind right now are being held in your
    working memory
  3. We are all better able to recall information at the beginning and end of a list because of:
    the primacy-recency effect
  4. _____ memory holds auditory memory for one or two seconds
    Echoic
  5. Time of occurance is important in _____ memory
    Episodic
  6. If you subconsciously block memories of a traumatic experience, you are most likely _____ the material
    repressing
  7. A multiple choice test may bring out knowledge you might not be able to show on an essay test due to the process of:
    recognition
  8. Conceptual frameworks you use to make sense of the world are called
    schemas
  9. To improve memory, you may link new information to material that is already known in
    elaborative rehearsal
  10. Chunking is associated with
    short-term memory
  11. Short-term memory
    has limited capacity
  12. Photographic memory is also called
    eidetic memory
  13. Interference refers to
    blocking of a memory by previous or subsequent memories
  14. Psychologist George Miller discovered that short-term memory is limited to about:
    seven items
  15. The three memory processes are
    encoding, storage, and retrieval
  16. HOMES, an acronym for the five Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie & Superior), is an example of
    . a mnemonic device
  17. Remembering how to jump rope, a skill that you have not practiced in many years, is an example of which kind of memory
    procedural
  18. Which of the following is NOT a unit of thought
    algorithm
  19. Maria would like to cut a coupon out of the newspaper but she cannot find her scissors. _____ is keeping her from using her kitchen knife for this purpose.
    Functional fixedness
  20. _____ is the first stage of language development.
    Cooing
  21. The idea that a person's language influences his or her thoughts is referred to as
    linguistic relativity
  22. When a child speaks in sentences but leaves out articles, prepositions, and parts of verbs, he or she is exhibiting
    telegraphic speech
  23. The "aha" experience, or suddenly realizing the solution to a problem, is called:
    insight
  24. Changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new or transformed information is called
    B. thinking
  25. A flawed theory that simply labels rather than explains behavior is
    instinct theory
  26. Motives can be inferred from
    goal-oriented behavior
  27. The theory that stresses the role of the environment plays in motivating behavior is:
    incentive theory
  28. Jose gets a lot of satisfaction out of playing his clarinet. He is _____ motivated to practice
    intrinsically
  29. According to the glucostatic theory of hunger, the _____ monitors the amount of glucose available in the blood.
    hypothalamus
  30. Psychosocial hunger factors are _____ cues that affect one's desire to eat
    external
  31. If you are motivated because you think you can succeed and your goal is worth a lot to you, you are illustrating the _____ theory
    expectancy-value
  32. Fear of success is found:
    in both men and women
  33. In Maslow's hierarchy, _____ needs involve the realization of one's unique potential.
    self-actualization
  34. Which of the following theories of emotion involves activation of the thalamus?
    Cannon-Bard theory
  35. What are the three parts of all emotions
    physical, behavioral, cognitive
  36. The Schacter-Singer experiment found that perception and arousal
    interact to create emotions
  37. According to the _____ theory, when the stimulus for one emotion is removed, you feel the opposite emotion
    . James-Lange theory
  38. Dr. Jones is a psychologist who explains motivation in terms of underlying physiological states. To which theory does Dr. Jones subscribe
    . drive-reduction theory
  39. Studies have shown that high achievers prefer to be associated with
    experts who help them achieve
  40. Pleasure obtained from stimulation is overlooked by which theory?
    drive-reduction theory
  41. Which of the following is a self-actualization need
    fulfilling one's own potential
  42. Studies on obese individuals indicate that
    they respond to external cues to eat
  43. The sympathetic nervous system
    energizes the body for activity
  44. The tendency of organisms to return to or maintain a normal state is called:
    homeostasis
  45. _____ explains the differences in emotional expressio that we find in various cultures
    Learning
  46. The Cannon-Bard theory proposed that:
    . the brain arouses the body and triggers emotions simultaneously
  47. The two basic dimensions of emotions are:
    pleasantness; intensity
  48. Dr. Medely believes that emotion is the result of interaction of physiological arousal and the cognitive label that we apply to explain the arousal. Dr. Medely's view is most consistent with the _____ theory of emotions
    D. Schacter-Singer Two-Factor
  49. Which of the following most accurately reflects our most current understanding of basic facial expressions?
    Facially expressions are universally recognized and are inborn.
  50. Standardized measure of intelligence based on a scale in which 100 is average
    intelligence quotient (IQ)
  51. Includes five major aspects of interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences
    emotional intelligence
  52. Proposes that intelligence is composed of a general ability level and specific mental abilities
    two-factor theory
  53. the score you receive on a test depends more on the grader than on you, the test has a problem with
    interscorer reliability
  54. If every time you take a standardized test, your score varies widely, the test has a problem with: Answer
    test-retest reliability
  55. One of the major ways of measuring _____ is to determine how well a test predicts performance.
    test validity
  56. Tests that are administered or scored in an inconsistent manner are not:
    . standardized
  57. Critics argue that emotional intelligence is simply a measurement of: Answer
    extraversion
  58. The _____ was originally developed to identify "slow learners." Answer
    Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
  59. The s factor in Spearman's theory of intelligence represents
    specific mental abilities
  60. 10-year-old Michael's IQ score on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence test was 130. It is likely that his mental age is _____.
    thirteen
  61. Comparing the average performance of the WAIS in the 1920s sample with the average performance of today's WAIS sample provides convincing evidence that each generation is smarter than those before it due to the _____.
    Flynn Effect
  62. How would you characterize the distribution of scores in a normal distribution
    scores cluster around the average score
  63. Duane's car was not running well. The car would occasionally lose power and stall out. Duane thought about the possible solutions: changing the ignition wires, putting an additive in the fuel tank, or taking his car to a mechanic and letting the mechanic figure out the problem. Duane decided to try the additive in the fuel tank to see if that corrected the problem. Which one of Sternberg's intelligences does Duane appear to be using?
    analytical
  64. Scott possesses outstanding talent and shows potential for performing at remarkable levels of accomplishment when compared to others of the same age, experience, and environment. Scott's IQ score is 144, therefore placing him in the _____ range of IQ scores.
    gifted
  65. Mental retardation includes problems in communication, taking care of oneself, social skills, and vocational training. The section of mental retardation that is commonly known as Down Syndrome would be found in which category?
    Moderate Retardation: IQ 35-49
  66. Kansas University depends primarily on shoe size, rather than ACT scores for admission purposes. Their dropout rate is rather high. Shoe size is probably not an effective predictor of success in college because it lacks:
    validity
  67. Shane wants to be an architect or graphic designer when he finishes college. He loves to abstract paint in his spare time. Shane is probably dominant in which of Gardner's multiple intelligences?
    spatial
  68. Both the SAT and ACT measure:
    aptitude
  69. Achievement tests are assessed primarily on their:
    Content validity
  70. Which of the following aptitude tests comprises nine different tests, ranging from vocabulary to manual dexterity?
    General Aptitude Test Battery
  71. Aptitude tests are assessed primarily in terms of their
    Predictive validity
  72. Which of the following is used to assess the "normal person" but does not reveal psychiatric illnesses
    CPI
  73. The _____ was originally developed to help diagnose psychiatric disorders
    MMPI
  74. Which of the following focuses on how a person takes in information and makes decisions
    Myers-Briggs test
  75. Which of the following asks participants to tell stories about the pictures on a series of 20 cards?
    TAT
  76. The theory underlying the _____ is that anything someone does or says reveals and aspect of that person's personality
    Rorschach test
  77. collective unconscious
    Carl Jung
  78. inferiority complex
    Alfred Adler
  79. observational learning
    Albert Bandura
  80. psychoanalysis
    sigmund freud
  81. self- actualization
    abraham maslow
  82. Perspective that views that human condition as a mixture of unconscious desires and conflicts
    humanistic
  83. Perspective which focuses on the importance of learning by observation and how conscious thoughts in different situations can influence actions
    social cognitive
  84. Perspective that begins with the assumption that self-awareness is the very core of humanity thus emphasizing free will
    psychoanalytic
  85. Perspective used by Cattell as a basis for his personality measure known as the 16PF test
    trait
  86. an individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
    personality
  87. what is not a purpose of personality theories
    explain instinctive behaviors
  88. _____ focus on how our thoughts, perceptions, and feelings shape our personalities.
    cognitive theories
  89. According to Carl Jung, a(n) _____ is an inherited idea based on the experiences of one's ancestors.
    archetype
  90. A person exhibiting _____ replaces an unacceptable feeling or urge with an opposite one.
    a reaction formation
  91. Marty frequently becomes angry with his wife. The real object of his anger is his boss at work. This defense mechanism is called
    displacement
  92. In Sigmund Freud's theory of personality, the ego is concerned with what a person ____ do.
    can
  93. Irrational and chaotic is to the _____ as rational and reality-oriented is to the ____.
    id; ego
  94. With _____, the ego avoids anxiety by believing that impulses coming from within are really coming from other people.
    projection
  95. According to Freud, the part of the psyche that stops a person from stealing is the:
    superego
  96. One of your classmates remarks that "Monty is all id." By assuming your classmate's analysis of Monty is on target, what is likely meant by the classmate?
    Monty frequently pursues immediate gratification
  97. According to Albert Bandura, people can direct their own behavior
    by their choice of models
  98. According to Albert Bandura, as long as a person's _____ positive, he or she will keep trying to succeed.
    outcome expectations are
  99. The swimming instructor who introduces a new stroke by performing the motion while students watch is encouraging:
    observational learning
  100. Because they are secure in themselves, self-actualized individuals are more:
    problem-centered than self-centered
  101. Children whose parents _____ will gradually come to value themselves for what they are.
    show unconditional positive regard
  102. According to Gordon Allport, preferences for food and music are considered to be:
    secondary traits
  103. Traits that Raymond Cattell considered to be at the core of personality are called:
    source traits
  104. Which of the following "robust factors" refers to individuals who are dutiful, dedicated to completing tasks, organized, and responsible? Answer
    conscientiousness
  105. Which of the following did Hans Eysenck not consider a dimension of personality?
    agreeableness vs. antogonism
  106. According to Bandura's theory, which of the following factors is more likely to contribute to the self-regulation of behavior
    observing other people's behavior and the consequences of their actions
  107. makes a person feel good, such as winning a few dollars in a lottery or doing well on an exam
    uplift
  108. person must choose between two or more options that tend to result from opposing motives
    conflict situation
  109. stems from motivating strivings and challenges
    eustress
  110. stems from acute anxiety or pressure
    distress
  111. person's reaction to his or her inability to cope with a certaine tense event or situation
    stress
  112. concept that women and men should receive equal pay for jobs calling for similar skills and responsibilities
    comparable worth
  113. A conflict situation that occurs when an individual confronts two unattractive alternatives (rock and a hard place) is a(n) _____ conflict. Answer
    avoidance-avoidance
  114. Tony, a young boy, wants to pet a friend's dog, but his is afraid the dog will bite him. This is a(n) _____ conflict.
    approach-avoidance
  115. _____ cause(s) relatively minor day-to-day stress
    hassels
  116. Which of the following do most Americans regard as one of the foremost irritants causing environmental stress in their lives
    noise
  117. Which personality type is generally relaxed and does not easily become angry?
    type B
  118. In the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the person finds the means to cope with the stressor and to ward off adverse reactions
    resistance
  119. The mobilization of the "fight or flight" response occurs during the _____ stage.
    alarm
  120. Which of the following active coping strategies can release the tension of pent-up feelings and help you keep a proper perspective of the situation? Answer
    humor
  121. The active coping strategy that involves a rational analysis of the situation that will lead to an appropriate decision is:
    problem solving
  122. Which of the following is NOT considered an active coping strategy?
    denial
  123. Which of the following is NOT considered a defensive coping strategy
    hardiness
  124. Miles, watching a gruesome horror film, protects himself from feelings of stress by blocking out the feelings associated with the scenes. This is an example of a coping strategy called:
    intellectualization
  125. When you first enter college, sho may undergo an emotional experience known as:
    college shock
  126. In college, you will meet people from a variety of different backgrounds. In this way, you will experience greater _____ than ever before
    diversity
  127. College often challenges the _____ a student established in high school
    identity
  128. Which of the following is NOT a way to distinguish normal from abnormality?
    behaving differently in different cultures
  129. Defining abnormality as a deviation from normal
    assumes what most people do is normal
  130. Axis II of the DSM-IV is usded to describe:
    developmental disorders
  131. Which of the following is NOT a major area of adaptive functioning
    self-actualization
  132. Physical symptoms of _____ include muscular tension, an inability to relax, a furrowed brow, and a strained face
    generalized anxiety disorder
  133. A person who is extremely afraid of darkness suffers from:
    A. a specific phobia
  134. A person with bipolar disorder experiences alternating periods of:
    frantic action and deep despair
  135. An extreme fear of being in a public place is called:
    agoraphobia
  136. Dissociative amnesia most often results from:
    a traumatic event
  137. A person who suddenly and unexpectedly travels away from home and cannot recall the past is experiencing:
    dissociative fugue
  138. People with dissociative identity disorder usually
    suffered abuse as children
  139. Brain imaging techniques have shown that the brains of people who have schizophrenia often show signs of:
    deteriorated brain tissue
  140. _____ schizophrenia involves delusions of grandeur and persecution.
    Paranoid
  141. The _____ suggests that schizophrenia is caused by an imbalance of chemicals in the brain.
    dopamine hypothesis
  142. The diathesis-stress states that an individual may have _____ a predisposition toward schizophrenia.
    inherited
  143. False or distorted perceptions that seem vividly real are called
    hallucinations
  144. False beliefs a person maintains in the face of contrary evidence is
    delusions
  145. During the last year, Rebecca's 10-year-old son, Tyler has developed several unusual symptoms. For no apparent reason, Tyler's head will suddenly jerk, his eyes will repeatedly blink, or he will repetitively shrug his shoulders. In the past two months, Tyler's symptoms have become more frequent and intense. Additionally, Tyler's 4th grade teacher has complained that he sometimes makes clicking and grunting sounds in class, which he doesn't seem able to control. Which of the following does Tyler most likely have?
    Tourette's syndrome
  146. After not seeing Rita for almost a week, a neighbor went to check on her. He discovered that Rita had barricaded all the doors and windows to her apartment because she believed that "terrorist forces" were going to attack her and her three cats. Rita appears to be suffering from
    delustions of persecution
  147. Based on their genetic relationship with a person with schizophrenia, which of the following people has the greatest risk of developing schizophrenia?
    Anne, whose biological mother and father have schizophrenia

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