Laboratory Animal Research

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Laboratory Animal Research
2013-01-19 17:35:19
Exotic Animals One

Exotic Animals
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  1. What does USDA stand for?
    United States Department of Agriculture
  2. What does APHIS stand for?
    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
  3. What does AC stand for?
    Animal Care
  4. What does the animal welfare act do?
    • protects animals in research, teaching, and exhibition
    • covers transport, housing, and uses
  5. What is an animal use protocol?
    write up how animal is used, what is done for pain, how animal is housed, how animal is fed, etc.
  6. How often does the animal welfare act inspectors inspect facilities?  Do the investigators warn the facility when they are coming to inspect?
    • inspect 1 - 2 times per year every 2 years
    • inspections are unannounced
  7. Can the inspector fine a facility?
    no, the inspector only writes up the report and then the agency reviews the report and decides what should be fined
  8. What does the animal welfare act protect?  What does it not protect?
    • protects warm blooded animals
    • does not protect rats and mice, farm animals outside of research, reptiles, pets and pet shops, and animal shelters
  9. What regulates the Horse Protection Act?
    the USDA
  10. What does the Horse Protection Act ban?
  11. What is soring?
    altering the horses tendons in order for them to be able to have a high step gait
  12. Why are mice and rats not covered by the Animal Welfare Act?
    due to pharmaceutical testing and would cost too much $ to cover this in the act 
  13. What are animals in research used for?
    • drug discovery
    • advances in dx, tx, and prevention of many health related conditions in man/animals
    • biological/behavioral research
    • teaching
    • drug toxicity/product testing
  14. What are some examples of discoveries made by using animals for research?
    • organ transplants
    • polio vaccine and others
    • discovery of insulin
    • therapeutic use of antibiotics and anti-rejection drugs
    • coronary artery bypass surgery
  15. What is The Guide?
    • guide for the care and use of laboratory animals
    • covers all animals used in research funded by public health services and national institute of health
  16. What does NIH stand for?
    national institute of health
  17. What does IACUC stand for?
    institutional animal care and use committee
  18. What does IACUC do?
    reviews protocols before animal research is done and how animals will be cared for
  19. What are the two parts of the animal cause movement?
    • animal welfare:  ban pound animals in research and improves care of research animals
    • animal rights:  wants to end the use of animals in research
  20. What are the different animal rights organizations?
    • PETA
    • HSUS (humane society of the united states)
    • AHS (american humane society)
    • AVAR (association of veterinarians for animal rights)
  21. What does ALF stand for and what is it?
    • Animal Liberation Front
    • terrorist group
  22. What is the famous quote stated by the founder of PETA?
    "a rat is a pig is a dog is a boy"
  23. What are the three R's (goals for welfare groups and USDA)?
    • Refinement of techniques to reduce suffering (must provide analgesia)
    • Reduction of numbers used
    • Replacement of animal models (computer models, lower forms of life, artificial devices)
  24. What are some alternatives to animal uses?
    • computer simulations
    • in vitro testing (cell culture, genetic manipulation)
    • realistic looking models
    • Johns Hopkins CAAT (center for alternative animal testing)
  25. What does AWIC stand for and what is it?
    • Animal Welfare Information Center
    • clearing house for information about animals used in research
    • investigators must check to see if experiments have been done before
  26. Are animal protection regulations federal?
    no, they differ from state to state
  27. Who regulates animal protection?
    • agriculture department
    • state humane veterinarian
    • humane investigators
  28. What forces animal protection in each town?
    animal control and humane societies/pounds
  29. What is the difference between pounds and animal shelters?
    • pounds are government agencies and are usually a part of the police department
    • animal shelters are nonprofit organizations
  30. What organization over sees all research?
    American Association for Lab Animal Science (AALAS)
  31. What does AAALAC stand for?
    American Association for the Accreditation of Lab Animal Care
  32. What does ACLAM stand for?
    American College of Lab Animal Medicine
  33. What does ASLAP stand for?
    American Society of Lab Animal Practicitioners
  34. What are lab animal facilities designed to prevent?
    prevent diseases by minimizing variables
  35. What variables are minimized and controlled in lab animal facilities?
    • constant environment (temp, light, humidity)
    • controlled ventilation (air changes, laminar flow)
    • limited access
    • special diets used
    • caging set by regulations (size, type, # of animals, mesh)
    • bedding
    • extensive washing facilities
  36. What does "per diem" mean?
    daily charge for an animal at a research facility
  37. What are the different CDC biosafety levels?  Which levels need special facilities and training
    • Levels I - IV
    • Levels III and IV need to have special facilities
  38. Where does funding come from for level III and IV labs?
    homeland security
  39. What do the CDC biosafety levels determine?
    determines who can handle/manage infectious agents
  40. When something goes into a level IV lab, what happens to it before it comes out?
    has to be incinerated...animal, feces, urine, blood, etc.
  41. What are the different jobs and the order from least training to most training for a lab tech?
    • Assistant LAT (ALAT) - least training
    • Lab Animal Technician (LAT)
    • Lab Animal Technologist (LATG) - most training
  42. What is the role of lab techs?
    • animal surveillance/tx
    • diagnostics
    • anesthesia
    • assist in research procedures
  43. What do you have to do before you can enter a limited access area of a lab?
    • shower when you go in and when you come out
    • wear scrubs, cap, mask, gown, and shoe covers
  44. Which dog breeds are bred the most frequent for research?
    beagles and labs
  45. Are are large animals used for in research?
    • zoonotic diseases
    • agriterrorism
    • homeland security
    • surgery (heart transplants)
  46. What are the different ways we can ventilate the air in a laboratory?
    • hepa filters
    • ventilated rack
    • individual cage ventilators
    • room ventilators
  47. What animals do we use to research immunosuppressive diseases?
    • nude rats
    • SCID (severely compromised immunodicifency)
  48. Why do we refrigerate the food for lab animals?
    to keep unwanted vermin out (rats, mice, cockroaches)
  49. What are research diets?
    can design a specific diet for the animals for a study
  50. Define specific pathogen free.
    animals are free of a specific pathogen
  51. Define gnotobiotic.
    animals with a known flora (usually bacteria)
  52. Define axenic.
    • animals that are free of any organism (good or bad)
    • animal is delivered by a C-section and kept in a sterile barrier sustained unit where they have no contact with animals or humans
  53. Define strains.
    different genetic lines of a lab animal
  54. Define purpose bred.
    bred by private companies for a study
  55. Define inbred.
    what is done in rodents to create homozygousity (animals with the same genotype) 
  56. Define hybrid.
    mate two inbred strains
  57. Define transgenic.
    moving genes from one animal to another
  58. Define knockout.
    knocking out certain genes
  59. Define xenografts.
    taking tissue from one animal and putting it in a person
  60. Are cage cards enough to identify the animals in the lab?
    no, they must have identifications on them
  61. What are the different identifications we can use for lab animals?
    • tattoo
    • ear notch
    • tags
    • implanted chip
  62. How do we prevent disease in the laboratory?
    • sentinel animals
    • blood tests
    • quarantine new animals
    • embryo transfer at blastocyst stage
  63. What are sentinel animals?
    • an animal that is not part of the study that is in with the other animals in the study and is occasionally tested
    • 1 animal per 120 boxes
  64. What kind of blood tests do we do for disease prevention in the lab?
    • ELISA tests
    • PCR
  65. When do we euthanize lab animals?
    • if no more per diem (lose grant money)
    • study is over
    • to recover samples (necropsy)
    • disease surveillance or problems seen