Laboratory Animal Research
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What does USDA stand for?
United States Department of Agriculture
What does APHIS stand for?
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
What does AC stand for?
What does the animal welfare act do?
- protects animals in research, teaching, and exhibition
- covers transport, housing, and uses
What is an animal use protocol?
write up how animal is used, what is done for pain, how animal is housed, how animal is fed, etc.
How often does the animal welfare act inspectors inspect facilities? Do the investigators warn the facility when they are coming to inspect?
- inspect 1 - 2 times per year every 2 years
- inspections are unannounced
Can the inspector fine a facility?
no, the inspector only writes up the report and then the agency reviews the report and decides what should be fined
What does the animal welfare act protect? What does it not protect?
- protects warm blooded animals
- does not protect rats and mice, farm animals outside of research, reptiles, pets and pet shops, and animal shelters
What regulates the Horse Protection Act?
What does the Horse Protection Act ban?
What is soring?
altering the horses tendons in order for them to be able to have a high step gait
Why are mice and rats not covered by the Animal Welfare Act?
due to pharmaceutical testing and would cost too much $ to cover this in the act
What are animals in research used for?
- drug discovery
- advances in dx, tx, and prevention of many health related conditions in man/animals
- biological/behavioral research
- drug toxicity/product testing
What are some examples of discoveries made by using animals for research?
- organ transplants
- polio vaccine and others
- discovery of insulin
- therapeutic use of antibiotics and anti-rejection drugs
- coronary artery bypass surgery
What is The Guide?
- guide for the care and use of laboratory animals
- covers all animals used in research funded by public health services and national institute of health
What does NIH stand for?
national institute of health
What does IACUC stand for?
institutional animal care and use committee
What does IACUC do?
reviews protocols before animal research is done and how animals will be cared for
What are the two parts of the animal cause movement?
- animal welfare: ban pound animals in research and improves care of research animals
- animal rights: wants to end the use of animals in research
What are the different animal rights organizations?
- HSUS (humane society of the united states)
- AHS (american humane society)
- AVAR (association of veterinarians for animal rights)
What does ALF stand for and what is it?
- Animal Liberation Front
- terrorist group
What is the famous quote stated by the founder of PETA?
"a rat is a pig is a dog is a boy"
What are the three R's (goals for welfare groups and USDA)?
- Refinement of techniques to reduce suffering (must provide analgesia)
- Reduction of numbers used
- Replacement of animal models (computer models, lower forms of life, artificial devices)
What are some alternatives to animal uses?
- computer simulations
- in vitro testing (cell culture, genetic manipulation)
- realistic looking models
- Johns Hopkins CAAT (center for alternative animal testing)
What does AWIC stand for and what is it?
- Animal Welfare Information Center
- clearing house for information about animals used in research
- investigators must check to see if experiments have been done before
Are animal protection regulations federal?
no, they differ from state to state
Who regulates animal protection?
- agriculture department
- state humane veterinarian
- humane investigators
What forces animal protection in each town?
animal control and humane societies/pounds
What is the difference between pounds and animal shelters?
- pounds are government agencies and are usually a part of the police department
- animal shelters are nonprofit organizations
What organization over sees all research?
American Association for Lab Animal Science (AALAS)
What does AAALAC stand for?
American Association for the Accreditation of Lab Animal Care
What does ACLAM stand for?
American College of Lab Animal Medicine
What does ASLAP stand for?
American Society of Lab Animal Practicitioners
What are lab animal facilities designed to prevent?
prevent diseases by minimizing variables
What variables are minimized and controlled in lab animal facilities?
- constant environment (temp, light, humidity)
- controlled ventilation (air changes, laminar flow)
- limited access
- special diets used
- caging set by regulations (size, type, # of animals, mesh)
- extensive washing facilities
What does "per diem" mean?
daily charge for an animal at a research facility
What are the different CDC biosafety levels? Which levels need special facilities and training
- Levels I - IV
- Levels III and IV need to have special facilities
Where does funding come from for level III and IV labs?
What do the CDC biosafety levels determine?
determines who can handle/manage infectious agents
When something goes into a level IV lab, what happens to it before it comes out?
has to be incinerated...animal, feces, urine, blood, etc.
What are the different jobs and the order from least training to most training for a lab tech?
- Assistant LAT (ALAT) - least training
- Lab Animal Technician (LAT)
- Lab Animal Technologist (LATG) - most training
What is the role of lab techs?
- animal surveillance/tx
- assist in research procedures
What do you have to do before you can enter a limited access area of a lab?
- shower when you go in and when you come out
- wear scrubs, cap, mask, gown, and shoe covers
Which dog breeds are bred the most frequent for research?
beagles and labs
Are are large animals used for in research?
- zoonotic diseases
- homeland security
- surgery (heart transplants)
What are the different ways we can ventilate the air in a laboratory?
- hepa filters
- ventilated rack
- individual cage ventilators
- room ventilators
What animals do we use to research immunosuppressive diseases?
- nude rats
- SCID (severely compromised immunodicifency)
Why do we refrigerate the food for lab animals?
to keep unwanted vermin out (rats, mice, cockroaches)
What are research diets?
can design a specific diet for the animals for a study
Define specific pathogen free.
animals are free of a specific pathogen
animals with a known flora (usually bacteria)
- animals that are free of any organism (good or bad)
- animal is delivered by a C-section and kept in a sterile barrier sustained unit where they have no contact with animals or humans
different genetic lines of a lab animal
Define purpose bred.
bred by private companies for a study
what is done in rodents to create homozygousity (animals with the same genotype)
mate two inbred strains
moving genes from one animal to another
knocking out certain genes
taking tissue from one animal and putting it in a person
Are cage cards enough to identify the animals in the lab?
no, they must have identifications on them
What are the different identifications we can use for lab animals?
- ear notch
- implanted chip
How do we prevent disease in the laboratory?
- sentinel animals
- blood tests
- quarantine new animals
- embryo transfer at blastocyst stage
What are sentinel animals?
- an animal that is not part of the study that is in with the other animals in the study and is occasionally tested
- 1 animal per 120 boxes
What kind of blood tests do we do for disease prevention in the lab?
When do we euthanize lab animals?
- if no more per diem (lose grant money)
- study is over
- to recover samples (necropsy)
- disease surveillance or problems seen
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