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CNS tumors include tumors of the ___ & ___.
brain & spine
Only ___% of CNs tumors metastasize
CNS tumors are responsible for ___% of annual cancer deaths.
___% of CNs tumors involve the brain
___% of CNS tumors involve the spinal cord
CNS tumors is the ___ leading cause of death in children behind leukemia
What are the 2 age groups CNS tumors affect?
3 - 12 and 50 - 80
Are primary brain tumors common or uncommon?
Brain metastasis is the most common brain lesion, mainly steming from the ___.
Most spinal axis tumors are ___-____
Most primary spinal axis tumors are ___-dural?
The Etiology of CNS tumors is largely unknown. However, associations are made between:
occupational and enviromental exposures
(chemicals, rubber, pesticides, radiation)
Lifestyle & diet
(nitrates, smoking, hairdyes)
(Aids, viral infections)
(von Recklinghausens disease)
What are 3 important prognostic factors?
- performance status
- tumor type
also tumor location & grade with presence or absence of necrosis
Cranial pressure, personality changes, seizures, motor dysfunction, speech impairment, urinary incontinence, CN VI palsy are symptoms associated with a tumor located in the ___ area of the brain?
The following are indications of a tumor located in the ____ section of the brain:
increased cranial pressure, vision loss, seizures, weakness, memory loss, loss of touch
the following sysmtoms is an indication of a tumor located in the ___ section of the brain :
loss of smell
weakness in CNV1
THe following symptoms indicated a tumor in the ____ section of the brain
loss of vision
These symptoms are clinical presentations of a tumor located in the _________.
Difficulty with balance,
gait & ambulation,
mental & personality changes
short term memory loss
nausea & vomitting
Are headaches with a brain tumor worse in the am or pm?
These symptoms are clinical presentations of tumors in the ________
Pain - weakness - loss of sensation - bowel & bladder control problems - deterioration of motor and sensory function - decreased temperature - paralysis - impotence
What are some of the detection & diagnosis procedures of CNS tumors?
- complete H & P
- Patients will be on steroids to decrease swelling
- Intellectual test (person, place & time)
- Coordination skills (sensations, reflexes, motor skills)
Histopathology is more important than ____
Primary tumors are treated _____ fields; which is 2-3cm margin to begin the shrinking for boost
____ helps spare normal brain tissues, optic chiasm, orbits and lens
____ form 50% of all CNS tumors
____ arise from neuroglial cells (astroctyes)
____ are the most common in adults ages 40 to 60
____ occur mostly in the cerebrum
_____ of the brainstem and cerebellum are more common in children.
____% of spinal cord tumors are gliomas
_____ are almost exculsively found in the cerebellum of children
What are 5 tumors of the supporting structures of the CNS?
- Acoustic Neuroma
- Pituitary tumors
- Craniopharyn gliomas
_____ arise from the pia or arachnoid layers.
age is 50 or greater
most are benign
RT is post op or if tumor is not resectable
what is the dose for menigioma
What type of tumor arises from Schwann cells of the nerve sheath of the 8th cranial nerve.
May affect adjacent facial or trigiminal nerves.
Symptoms include: hearing loss, tinnitus, and unsteadiness
____ closely resemble pituitary tumors
_____ are benign and usally occur before the age of 20
_____ found at caudal or crainal ends of spinal cord
Metastatic brain lesion is ___ times more common than primary brain tumors
For mets brain tumors whole brain RT is the treatment of choice.
Dose is 30-50 Gy and is mainly pallative.
Between what layers is the CSF fluid?
the arachnoid & pia mater
What allows the right & left sides of hte brain to communicate?
What is the most common CNS tumor?
What is most common primary CNS tumor?
What is the most common clincial brain presentation?
headaches then dizziness
Which treatment givees us the opportunity to save as much normal tissue as possible?
The way a proton delivers its energy is called a
What dooes GTR stannd for?
Gross Total Regression
What does GBM stand for?
What type of brain tumor can metastatsis outside the skull?
What does IAC stand for?
Internal Auditory Canal
What does SRS stand for?
What does CTV stand for?
Clinical Target Volume
What does ICRU stand for?
International Commission of Radiaiton Units
What does GTV stand for?
Gross Tumor Volume
What does PTV stand for?
Planning target Volume
What does TV stand for?
What does OAR stand for?
Organs at risk
What 2 parts can the nervous system be broken into?
CNS - Central Nervous System
PNS - Peripheral Nervous System
What part of the nervous system contains the brain & spinal cord
What part of the nervous system is outside of the skull & vertebral column & incluudes cranial nerves, spinal nerves & autonmic nervous system
PNS Peripheral nervous system
What is the largest & most complex part of the nervous system?
What are the 3 portions of the brain
cerebrum, cerebellum & a brain stem
What does the cerebrum contain?
Nerve centers associated with sensory & motor functions
What regulates heart rate and arterial blood pressure, body temp, water & electrolyte balance, controls hunger & regulation of bod weight, regulates sleep & wakefullness
Structures in the general area of the diencephelon also play important roles in the
control of emotional responses
The ___ functions as a control center for vital activities such as cardiac rate, vasomotor effects (raises and lowers blood pressure) and respiratory function
_____ function to carry impulses toward the nueron cell body
_____ function is to carry impulses away from the neuron cell body
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