CNS

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RadTherapy
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191679
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CNS
Updated:
2013-01-07 22:26:49
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CNS
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CNS
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  1. CNS tumors include tumors of the ___ & ___.
    brain & spine
  2. Only ___% of CNs tumors metastasize
    1%
  3. CNS tumors are responsible for ___% of annual cancer deaths.
    2%
  4. ___% of CNs tumors involve the brain
    80%
  5. ___% of CNS tumors involve the spinal cord
    20%
  6. CNS tumors is the ___ leading cause of death in children behind leukemia
    2nd
  7. What are the 2  age groups CNS tumors affect?
    3 - 12 and 50 - 80
  8. Are primary brain tumors common or uncommon?
    uncommon
  9. Brain metastasis is the most common brain lesion, mainly steming from the ___.
    lung
  10. Most spinal axis tumors are ___-____
    • extra-dural
    • (metastasis)
  11. Most primary spinal axis tumors are ___-dural?
    intra-dural
  12.                            Note:
    The Etiology of CNS tumors is largely unknown. However, associations are made between:
       occupational and enviromental exposures
          (chemicals, rubber, pesticides, radiation)
       Lifestyle & diet
          (nitrates, smoking, hairdyes)
        Medical conditions
           (Aids, viral infections)
        Genetic factors
            (von Recklinghausens disease)
  13. What are 3 important prognostic factors?
    • Age
    • performance status
    • tumor type

    also tumor location & grade with presence or absence of necrosis
  14. Cranial pressure, personality changes, seizures, motor dysfunction, speech impairment, urinary incontinence, CN VI palsy are symptoms associated with a tumor located in the ___ area of the brain?
    Frontal
  15. The following are indications of a tumor located in the ____ section of the brain:
    increased cranial pressure, vision loss, seizures, weakness, memory loss, loss of touch 
    parietal
  16. the following sysmtoms is an indication of a tumor located in the ___ section of the brain :
    speech disorders
    seizures
    loss of smell
    weakness in CNV1
    defective hearing
    memory
    Temporal
  17. THe following symptoms indicated a tumor in the ____ section of the brain
    seizures
    loss of vision
    tingling
    weakness
    hallucinations
    Occipital
  18. These symptoms are clinical presentations of a tumor located in the _________.
    Headaches
    Seizures
    Difficulty with balance,
    gait & ambulation,
    decreased vision
    mental & personality changes
    short term memory loss
    hallucinations
    nausea & vomitting
    Brain
  19. Are headaches with a brain tumor worse in the am or pm?
    am
  20. These symptoms are clinical presentations of tumors in the ________
    Pain - weakness - loss of sensation - bowel & bladder control problems - deterioration of motor and sensory function - decreased temperature - paralysis - impotence
    Spine
  21. What are some of the detection & diagnosis procedures of CNS tumors?
    • complete H & P
    • Patients will be on steroids to decrease swelling
    • Intellectual test (person, place & time)
    • Coordination skills (sensations, reflexes, motor skills)
    • Opthalmoscopy
    • CT
    • MRI
    • PET
  22. Histopathology is more important than ____
    Anatomic staging
  23. Primary tumors are treated _____ fields; which is 2-3cm margin to begin the shrinking for boost
    conformal
  24. ____ helps spare normal brain tissues, optic chiasm, orbits and lens
    multiple beams
  25. ____ form 50% of all CNS tumors
    Gliomas
  26. ____ arise from neuroglial cells (astroctyes)
    Gliomas
  27. ____ are the most common in adults ages 40 to 60
    Gliomas
  28. ____ occur mostly in the cerebrum
    Gliomas
  29. _____ of the brainstem and cerebellum are more common in children.
    Gliomas
  30. ____% of spinal cord tumors are gliomas
    23%
  31. _____ are almost exculsively found in the cerebellum of children
    medulloblastoma
  32. What are  5 tumors of the supporting structures of the CNS?
    • Meningioma
    • Acoustic Neuroma
    • Pituitary tumors
    • Craniopharyn gliomas
    • Chordomas
  33. _____ arise from the pia or arachnoid layers.
    age is 50 or greater
    most are benign
    GTR
    RT is post op or if tumor is not resectable
    Menigiomia
  34. what is the dose for menigioma
    50Gy
  35. What type of tumor arises from Schwann cells of the nerve sheath of the 8th cranial nerve.
    It's benign,
    May affect adjacent facial or trigiminal nerves.
    Symptoms include: hearing loss, tinnitus, and unsteadiness
    Acoustic Neuromas
  36. ____ closely resemble pituitary tumors
    Craniopharygiomas
  37. _____ are benign and usally occur before the age of 20
    craniopharygioma
  38. _____ found at caudal or crainal ends of spinal cord
    Chordomas
  39. Metastatic brain lesion is ___ times more common than primary brain tumors
    10
  40.                             NOTE:
    For mets brain tumors whole brain RT is the treatment of choice.
    Dose is 30-50 Gy and is mainly pallative.
  41. Between what layers is the CSF fluid?
    the arachnoid & pia mater
  42. What allows the right & left sides of hte brain to communicate?
    corpus callosum
  43. What is the most common CNS tumor?
    Brain metastasis
  44. What is most common primary CNS tumor?
    Glioma
  45. What is the most common clincial brain presentation?
    headaches then dizziness
  46. Which treatment givees us the opportunity to save as much normal tissue as possible?
    IMRT
  47. The way a proton delivers its energy is called a
    Braggs peak
  48. What dooes GTR stannd for?
    Gross Total Regression
  49. What does GBM stand for?
    Glioblastoma multiforme
  50. What type of brain tumor can metastatsis outside the skull?
    Medulloblastoma
  51. What does IAC stand for?
    Internal Auditory Canal
  52. What does SRS stand for?
    Sterostatic radiosurgery
  53. What does CTV stand for?
    Clinical Target Volume
  54. What does ICRU stand for?
    International Commission of Radiaiton Units
  55. What does GTV stand for?
    Gross Tumor Volume
  56. What does PTV stand for?
    Planning target Volume
  57. What does TV stand for?
    Treated Volume
  58. What does OAR stand for?
    Organs at risk
  59. What 2 parts can the nervous system be broken into?
    CNS - Central Nervous System

    PNS - Peripheral Nervous System
  60. What part of the nervous system contains the brain & spinal cord
    CNS
  61. What part of the nervous system is outside of the skull & vertebral column & incluudes cranial nerves, spinal nerves & autonmic nervous system
    PNS Peripheral nervous system
  62. What is the largest & most complex part of the nervous system?
    The brain
  63. What are the 3 portions of the brain
    cerebrum, cerebellum & a brain stem
  64. What does the cerebrum contain?
    Nerve centers associated with sensory & motor functions
  65. What regulates heart rate and arterial blood pressure, body temp, water & electrolyte balance, controls hunger & regulation of bod weight, regulates sleep & wakefullness
    Hypothalamus
  66. Structures in the general area of the diencephelon also play important roles in the
    control of emotional responses
  67. The ___ functions as a control center for vital activities such as cardiac rate, vasomotor effects (raises and lowers blood pressure) and respiratory function
    Medulla
  68. _____ function to carry impulses toward the nueron cell body
    dendrites
  69. _____ function is to carry impulses away from the neuron cell body
    axons

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