Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances + Alterations in Body Systems

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Author:
rodghawk
ID:
191681
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Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances + Alterations in Body Systems
Updated:
2013-01-21 16:28:26
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NCLEX
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NCLEX
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  1. foods rick in K for tx of hypokalemia (8)
    • raisins
    • bananas
    • apricot
    • oranges
    • beans
    • potatoes
    • carrots
    • celery
  2. tx of hyperkalemia (5)
    restric dietary K

    kayexalate (causes diarrhea)

    emergencies -- IV insulin, dextrose, sodium bicarb to shift K into cells

    diuretics

    hemodialysis/periotneal dialysis
  3. cause of addisons disease
    HYPOsecretion of adrenal hormones (mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens)
  4. s/s of addisons disease (4)
    hypotension

    weight loss

    pathological fractures

    hyperpigmentation
  5. cause and tx of Addisonian crisis (3)
    cause: physical/emotional stress, sudden withdrawal of hormones

    admin hydrocortisone

    IV glucose, glucagon

    IV insulin with dextrose in NS
  6. cause of Cushings syndrome
    hypersecretion of adrenal hormones (mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens)
  7. s/s of cushings syndrome (8)
    osteoporosis

    muscle wasting

    skin striations

    hirstutism

    hypertension

    moon face

    trunkal obesity

    blood sugar imbalances
  8. nutritional care for cushings (4)
    high protein

    low carb

    low calorie

    fluid restriction
  9. patient teaching for COPD (5)
    avoid hot/cold air or allergens

    avoid contact with sick people

    avoid crowds during time of year when resp. infections common

    adequate rest, nourishing diet, high fluids

    encourage flu vaccine
  10. meds commonly given for heart failure (7)
    dig -- r/t low CO

    ACE inhibitors -- dec. afterload + improve myocardial contractility

    diuretics

    vasodilators - dec. afterload + inc. contractility

    morphine -- dec. afterload

    inotropics -- improve contractility

    beta blockers -- dec. myocardial oxygen demand
  11. diet teaching for COPD (5)
    restric Na 

    high calorie

    bland/low residue

    small frequent feedings

    weight daily
  12. nursing care for anemia (4)
    frequent rest periods

    diet high in protein, iron, vitamins

    small easily digestible meals

    protect from infection
  13. nutritional care for pt on chemo (4)
    make meals appealing to senses

    conform diet to pt prefrences and diet needs

    small frequent meals high calorie and high protein diet

    oral hygeine and pain control before meals
  14. nursing considerations for Potassium supplements (3)
    monitor for hyperkalemia

    watch for sx of renal insufficiency -- inc. creatinine, inc. BUN

    IV POTASSIUM MUST ALWAYS BE DILUTED BEFORE GIVING -- NEVER ADMIN VIA IV PUSH
  15. what medications interact with Grapefruit? (6
    Tegretol

    Buspar

    CCB

    benzo

    SSRI

    cyclosporines
  16. s/s of hyponatremia (5)
    muscle weakness

    diminished DTR

    HA/dec. LOC

    hyperactive bowels/diarrhea

    increased urinary output/dilute urine

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