AP World Semester Exam Study Guide

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AP World Semester Exam Study Guide
2013-01-07 22:32:53

Ap world semester exam study guide
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  1. Define the term Agricultural Revolutions and explain how it impacted the world
    • The change from food gathering to food production (neolithic rebolution)
    • In dry parts around the world, agriculture didn't arise
  2. What was the most important result/benefit of the development of settled agricultural communities?
    Farmers of settled agricultural communites maintained a more stable food supply
  3. Who were the earliest settled people in Mesopotamia and what kind of writing system did they use?
    The sumerians were the earliest settled people of mesopotamia and used the semitic writing
  4. Why did the status of women decline with the spread of agriculture?
    The status of women declined because women had a part in hunting and gathering but not in farming
  5. Define the term “city-state.”
    A city state is a small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory
  6. How can we explain the absence of a formal code of law in Egypt?
    The Egyptian's conception of a divine king, the source of law and justice explained the absense of a code of law
  7. Define “hieroglyphics” and “papyrus.” What was their practical purpose?
    Hieroglyphics was the Egyptian system fo writing and papyrus was a writing material. Hieroglyphics was used on momnuments adn ornamental inscriptions adn papyrus was exported as well as used by scribes
  8. Why did Egypt develop such a unique culture and what was their system of religious beliefs based on?
    Egypts natural isolation and material self sufficiency fostered a unique culture. Egypt religion evoked the landscape of the Nile valley and the vision of cosmic order that this environment fostered
  9. Provide three examples which illustrate the important role and great contribution of the Phoenicians in the history of humankind.
    The Phonecian's alphabet, dyes, and ships were all great contributions that they made
  10. Define “Mandate of Heaven
    chinese religous and political idelology about the power of the ruler and when it can be taken away
  11. Define Confucianism
    a philosophy used all over China that believed in duty, public service, and family
  12. Define Daoism
    philosophy that the world is always changing and is devoid of morality and meaning, therefore Daoists deviate as little as possible from the path of nature
  13. Define Warring States Period
    a period of time in which China was divided among rival states with frequent hostilities
  14. Briefly describe Persian Empire
    Persia was divided into twenty provinces governed by a satrap. They all paid tribute to the king. Zoroastrianism was practiced in Persia and most likely by Darius. The government conains the framework for Median rule
  15. Define “democracy” (as it existed in Ancient Greece”)
    the exercise of pollitical privelage by all free adult males
  16. Define oligarchy
    exercise of political privelage by the wealthier members of society
  17. What ancient society started colonization to relieve the pressure of rapidly growing population because of the lack of farmland to support it?
    Greece started colinization to relieve the pressure of a rapidly growing society
  18. Define “Peloponnesian war” and “Persian wars”:  time period, participants, what the conflict was about.
    • Peloponnesian war - a fight between Athens and Sparta
    • Persian Wars - two Persian attacks on Greece in the early 15th century
  19. Explain the connection between Alexander the Great and the term “Hellenistic Age”?
    The Hellenistic Age was the epoch ushered in by conquests of Alexander the Great
  20. What is the main characteristic of the Hellenistic culture?
    Hellenistic culture is influenced by Greek culture
  21. Define “cosmopolitan” and “homogenous”
    • Cosmopolitan - free from local, provincial, or nationbal prejudices, or attatchments; at home all over the world
    • Homogeous - corresponding in structure because of a common orgin
  22. What diplomatic policy helped the Romans to bring Italy under their control?
    Romans granting political, legal, and economic privelages of Roman citizenship helped bring Italy under Rome's control
  23. List some of the main accomplishments of Julius Caesar and Octavian Augustus.
    Caesar adn Octavion commanded armies to increase personal power. Octavian started the Roman Principate, started an era of military dictators, and allied himself with the equites (Italian merchants and landowners).
  24. List some of the main cultural and technological achievements of the Roman Empire.
    Some main cultural and technological achievements of the Roman empire were the atrium, the forum, and the aqueduct. Also pax romana was an achievement
  25. Briefly describe the Vedic Age. Connect Indian class and caste system with the concept of reincarnation.
    The Vedic age was named after the Vedas, religous texts that are our main source of information about the period. Everything depended on karma. If your karma was good then you would be reincarnated into a higher class
  26. Explain the importance of the Brahmins in Indian society and how they tried to protect their privileged position
    Brahmins were the highest class in society. They were in charge of all the religous affairs, giving them their high position. They maintained this by being the only ones who were able to carry our the religous rituals so it was difficult for any class to replace them in the amount of power
  27. Explain how Vedic religion, Jainism, and Hinduism reflect the developments in Indian society and the needs of Indian people.
    Jainism affected India in that most if not all of Jainists became buisnesss men so India developed economically. The vedic religion is the foundation of Hinduism, a common religion in India. 
  28. Briefly Describe Mauryan Empire
    Government consisted of kings and government officials. These administrators were relatives and associates of the king and they governed based on traditional ethnic boundaries. The kings and government were supported by a tax.There was standard coinage throughout the empire whihc fostered support for the government and military as well as promoted trade.
  29. Briefly describe Gupta Empire
    Gupta monarchs were Hindu. They revived ancient Vedic practices. The Hindu temple evolved from the Gupta era. Coinage was the medium of exchange and sought control of the ports but there was a decline in trade
  30. Explain the connection between the sati ritual and the custom of footbinding
    Both the sati ritual and the custom of footbinding demonstrated male dominance over women and the little amount of respect held for women
  31. Briefly describe the Sassanid Empire
    The rise of the Sassanid empire brought on intensification of trade along the silk road. The warriors were the elite in this empire and agriculture was the main occupation
  32. In the context of African cultural characteristics, define “great traditions” and “small traditions”
    • Great traditions- a literate, well instatutionalized, complex of religous and social beliefs and practices adhered by diverse societies over a broad geographical area.
    • Small traditions - localized, usually non literate set of customs and beliefs adhered to by a single society
  33. Define “umma” and “ulama.” Memorize to make sure that you don’t confuse them.
    • Umma - the community of all Muslims. An innovation where usually kinship rather than faith, determined membership in a community.
    • Ulama - Muslim religous scholars and the primary interpreters of Muslim law and the social core of Muslim urban societies
  34. List the territories conquered by the Arab armies during the 7th and 8th century (most of the conquest took place under the Umayyads’ rule).
    Arab armies conquered Syria, Egypt, defeated the east Sasanid shah, Tunisisa, and Spain
  35. Describe the life style of Arab conquerors during the Umayyad rule
    The social structure of the Arab society lent itself to flexivle military operations. Umar tied army service with its regular pay and windfalls of booty to residence in large military camps
  36. Why do we call the Abbasid rule “the golden age”? List some of the main cultural achievements during this period
    The translation of Aristotle into Arabic, the founding of the main currents of theology and law, and the splendor of the Abbasid court in some respcts warrant callig the early Abbasid period a "golden age"
  37. Which cultures blended in the Umayyad Spain?
    Umayyad Spain developed a distinctive Islamic culture blending Roman, Germanic, and Jewish traditions with those of Arabs and Berbers
  38. What was the main difference between the Byzantine Empire and the Germanic kingdoms that emerged in Western Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire?
    The Byzantine empire represented a continuation fo Roman imperial rule and tradition that was largely absent in the kingdoms that succeeded Rome in the west. Byzantium inherited imnperial law intact; only provincial forms of Roman law survived in the west. Though crusaders from western Europe established a short lived Christain principalities, the Byzantines found them almost as hostile as the Muslims
  39. During the period of its existence, the Byzantine Empire experienced constant military pressure. To whom did it lose most of its territories in the 7th-8th centuries and in the end of the 12th century? What conquest brought about the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453?
    The Byzantines lost most of their lands to Arab armies. In 1453 Sultan Mehmet II captured constaninople and brought an end to the Byzantine empire.
  40. Describe the development of the institution of papacy. Explain the main challenge that Christian church faced in the Middle Ages. Also specifically some of the problems and achievements of the Western Church.
    In the west Roman nobles lost control of the papacy and it bacame a more powerful international office after the tenth century. The church had a shortage of clergymen though paganism was still important, nepotism and simony had conflicting views. The church became an important part of Europe
  41. Name the three most well-known Greek philosophers
    Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were the three most well know Greek philosophers
  42. Explain the role of women in the medieval Western Europe. How would you define their status?
    Women participated a lot in society. They could own land. noble women could administer states in her husgbands absence, adn women performed agricultural tasks alongside their husbands. Some women were also artisans.
  43. Explain the main purpose of monasteries as they developed in the Medieval Europe. What were some of the functions provided by the monasteries to the neighboring communities/outside world?
    Monasteries preserved literacy and learning in the early medieval period. A few planted Christianity and most serviced the needs of travelers, organized agricultural production on their lands, and took in infants abandoned by their parents
  44. List major technological innovations that improved the agricultural production in Europe during the 11th-12th centuries. What was the result?
    technological innovations include the use of horses, a new type of plow, the use of efficient draft harnesses, for pullin wagons, iron horseshoes, and the horse collar
  45. Explain the historical importance of the new cities in Flanders and Italy
    Independent cities governed dan defended by commoners as well as cities surrounded by walls appeared first in Italy and Flanders
  46. List the main causes and the results/impacts of the Crusades.
    The crusades started because first, reforming leaders of latin church popularized the Truce fo God so Christians wouldn't fight each other. Second, ambitious rulers were looking for new lands to conquer. Third, Italian merchants wanted to increase trade in the east. The results of the crusades were the last one was redirected against the Byzantines and resulted in the latin capture of Constantionople. The cultural impact was courts and burgeoning consuming more goods from the east. This set the stage for the later adoption of ideas, artistic styles, adn industrial processes from Byzantium and the lands of Islam
  47. What do the Qin and Sui Empires have in common?
    Both the Qin and Sui empires influenced succeeding empires. Both empires helped unify surrounding areas.
  48. How can you explain that Buddhism spread in China during the centuries of disunity? 
    In these times of disunity, people feared for their life and Buddhism gave them comfort in that if they worshipped they didn't need ot worry about what would happne if they died.
  49. Describe some positive and negative/controversial aspects of the Mongol rule in China?
    China as we think of it today wouldn't have existed without the Mongols. China had been three separate states with different cultures but they destroyed that and reunified it. During the Mongol rule, agriculture did poorly, so when it was finally encouraged, it was too late.
  50. Why did olive oil and wine become Greece’s most famous exports?
    The climate in Greece supported the growht of olive trees, barley, adn grapevines so olive oil and wine wass made there and exported to other areas.
  51. Describe the family structure and the role of women in the Roman Empire
    The basic unit of the Roman society was famil, made up of several generations of family answers plus domestic slaves. The oldest living male in the family exercised absolute control over the family
  52. Which Roman Emperor was the first one to convert to Christianity and to stop the persecution of Christians? What else is he known for?
    Constantine was the first to convert to Christianity. He also reunited the empire and issued the Edict of Milan, guaranteeing freeom of worship. Moving the capital was another accomplishment
  53. What were some of the most important technological innovations under the Han? What was China’s main export during this period of time?
    Iron and steel were invented, giving the ability to produce better made weapons and tools. Also, the watermill, horse collar, running water, roads, adn the crossbow were invented. The chinese were the first to make paper and their largest export was silk
  54. Provide at least two differences between the Indian Ocean Trade and the Mediterranean Network.
    The two differneces between the Indian Ocean Trade and Mediterranean Network is the location of the routes and also the voume of trade was much lower in the Indian Ocean
  55. Explain the significance of the Bantu migration for the cultural unity of Africa. Provide at least two examples
    Bantu migration was significant in that it spread Bantu migrations both north and south of the equator. Bantu speakers also seemed like a likely mechanism for the southward spread of iron. From 500-600 B.C.E there was a massive transfer of Bantu practices and traditions in all directions.