Nutrition Final

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Author:
TheRealLuis
ID:
19172
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Nutrition Final
Updated:
2010-05-13 10:59:43
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nutrition final
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nutrition
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  1. Disaccharides?
    • Maltose - Glucose + Glucose
    • Sucrose - Glucose + Fructose
    • Lactose - Glucose + Galactose
  2. Monosaccharides
    • Glucose
    • Fructose
    • Galactose
  3. Startch
    is a Polysaccharide - Long chains of glucose (How plants store energy)
  4. Glycogen
    highly branched chains of glucose (How animals store fat)
  5. FIBER
    • 1.) Soluble fiber - dissolves in water. Slows intestinal mobility and traps bile (Which is made of cholesterol) to lower cholesterol
    • Food sources: Oats, Fruit, Barley
    • 2.) Insoluble Fiber - not soluble in water, increases intestinal motility
    • Food sources: Wheat, brown rice, vegetables, whole grains, seeds.
  6. Diabetes
    • Body cannot maintain blood sugar
    • High blood sugar damages vascular system leading to: blindness, heart disease, kidney disease, amputation etc.
    • Symptoms: Polydipsia blurry vision
    • Polyurea pain in feet and limbs
    • Glucose in urine slow wound healing
  7. Types of Diabetes
    • type 1 - jeuvinile onset or insulin dependant. Pancreas does NOT produce insulin, need an external source of insulin, usually a shot.
    • type 2 - adult onset. non insulin dependent. Pancreas produces indulin however cells do not respond related to obesity as large fat cells are more resistant to insulin.
    • Gastational - occurs only in pregnant women
  8. Calcium
    • Most abundant mineral in the body.
    • bones, teeth - living tissue - CA fluxes in and out.
    • deficiency - stunted growth, bone loss
    • toxicity - CA deposits in kidneys
    • Sources: dairy boney fish leafy greens
  9. Phospheros
    • 2nd most abundant
    • combines with CA to form bones and teeth
    • Aso: buffer dna/rna
    • sources: dairy and protein
  10. Magnesium
    • bones and teeth, protein building, fluid electrolyte balance, cell integrity, nerve and muscle contractions, including heart muscle
    • deficiency: weakness, muscle twitching, bizarre movements, confusion.
    • toxicity: rare. may occur in use of MG containing laxatives.
    • sources: nuts legumes chocolate whole grains sea food.
  11. Sodium
    • fluid/electrolye balance
    • deficiency rare
  12. potarssium
    • main ion inside cells
    • heat beat.. deficiency occurs in dehydration. toxicity... not from food... but if injected its lethal.
    • sources: fresh fruits and vegetables
  13. Chloride
    • HCI in stomach
    • fluid balance
    • source - salt
  14. Sulfer
    source - protein foods
  15. Iodine
    regulated growth metabolism and development
  16. iron
    necessary to make new cells
  17. zinc
    woks with proteins and helps enzymes
  18. selenium
    antioxidant
  19. fluoride
    • not necessary but beneficial
    • usually in tap water
  20. Chromium
    works with insulin to regulate and release energy from glucose
  21. Copper
    helps from hemoglobin and collagen ability to handle o2. also assists in energy releasing reactions and gene regulation.
  22. Nutrients
    • protein 4 calories/gm
    • carbs 4 calories/gm
    • fats 9 calories/gm
    • water
  23. why do we chose food
    • taste/smell
    • comfort
    • economy
    • culture
    • religion
    • health
    • advertising
  24. 5 characteristics of a healthy diet
    • 1.) adequacy
    • 2.) Balance
    • 3.) Calorie control
    • 4.) Moderation
    • 5.) Variety
  25. DRI
    Dietary Reccomendation intake
  26. RDA
    Recommended Daily allowance
  27. AI
    adequate intake
  28. UL
    • Tolerable upper intake level.
    • highest level of nutrients to prevent toxicity.
  29. EAR
    Estimated Average Requirements
  30. AMDR
    • Acceptable, Macronutrient Distribution Range
    • Sets an acceptable range for energy yielding nutrients.
  31. BMI
    • < 18 - Underweight
    • 18-25 - Normal weight
    • 25-30 - Over weight
    • > 30 - obese
  32. Digestion
    • Mouth
    • Espophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small intestine
    • Large intesting
    • Rectum

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