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- Maltose - Glucose + Glucose
- Sucrose - Glucose + Fructose
- Lactose - Glucose + Galactose
is a Polysaccharide - Long chains of glucose (How plants store energy)
highly branched chains of glucose (How animals store fat)
- 1.) Soluble fiber - dissolves in water. Slows intestinal mobility and traps bile (Which is made of cholesterol) to lower cholesterol
- Food sources: Oats, Fruit, Barley
- 2.) Insoluble Fiber - not soluble in water, increases intestinal motility
- Food sources: Wheat, brown rice, vegetables, whole grains, seeds.
- Body cannot maintain blood sugar
- High blood sugar damages vascular system leading to: blindness, heart disease, kidney disease, amputation etc.
- Symptoms: Polydipsia blurry vision
- Polyurea pain in feet and limbs
- Glucose in urine slow wound healing
Types of Diabetes
- type 1 - jeuvinile onset or insulin dependant. Pancreas does NOT produce insulin, need an external source of insulin, usually a shot.
- type 2 - adult onset. non insulin dependent. Pancreas produces indulin however cells do not respond related to obesity as large fat cells are more resistant to insulin.
- Gastational - occurs only in pregnant women
- Most abundant mineral in the body.
- bones, teeth - living tissue - CA fluxes in and out.
- deficiency - stunted growth, bone loss
- toxicity - CA deposits in kidneys
- Sources: dairy boney fish leafy greens
- 2nd most abundant
- combines with CA to form bones and teeth
- Aso: buffer dna/rna
- sources: dairy and protein
- bones and teeth, protein building, fluid electrolyte balance, cell integrity, nerve and muscle contractions, including heart muscle
- deficiency: weakness, muscle twitching, bizarre movements, confusion.
- toxicity: rare. may occur in use of MG containing laxatives.
- sources: nuts legumes chocolate whole grains sea food.
- fluid/electrolye balance
- deficiency rare
- main ion inside cells
- heat beat.. deficiency occurs in dehydration. toxicity... not from food... but if injected its lethal.
- sources: fresh fruits and vegetables
- HCI in stomach
- fluid balance
- source - salt
source - protein foods
regulated growth metabolism and development
necessary to make new cells
woks with proteins and helps enzymes
- not necessary but beneficial
- usually in tap water
works with insulin to regulate and release energy from glucose
helps from hemoglobin and collagen ability to handle o2. also assists in energy releasing reactions and gene regulation.
- protein 4 calories/gm
- carbs 4 calories/gm
- fats 9 calories/gm
why do we chose food
5 characteristics of a healthy diet
- 1.) adequacy
- 2.) Balance
- 3.) Calorie control
- 4.) Moderation
- 5.) Variety
Dietary Reccomendation intake
Recommended Daily allowance
- Tolerable upper intake level.
- highest level of nutrients to prevent toxicity.
Estimated Average Requirements
- Acceptable, Macronutrient Distribution Range
- Sets an acceptable range for energy yielding nutrients.
- < 18 - Underweight
- 18-25 - Normal weight
- 25-30 - Over weight
- > 30 - obese
- Small intestine
- Large intesting