Chapter 14.1: On the Brink of a New World (1)

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  1. One explorer, __, thought he could find a sea passage from __through __, and was financed to set sail on the __. After moving down the coast of __, he finally found it, passing through __ into the __. After hardships and lack of food, they finally reached the __, where he was __. He is remembered as the first person to __. These voyages in the early 16th century began a new era that led to changes in __, __, and __. 
    • Ferdinand Magellan
    • Asia
    • America
    • Atlantic
    • South America
    • a narrow waterway
    • Pacific
    • Philippines
    • killed
    • circumnavigate the world
    • politics
    • economics
    • culture
  2. On the Brink of a New World: By the late 16th century, the Atlantic seaboard was commercially active. It raised __, __, the __, __and __to prominence. The age of expansion was crucial in thetrasition from__ to __and __. 
    • Portugal
    • Spain
    • Dutch Republic
    • England
    • France
    •  agrarian
    • commercial
    • industrial capitalism
  3. I.                   The Motives for Expansion
    • a.      Catholic Europe was confined to one geographic area
    •                                                               i.      Attempts to expand= fail (Crusades)
    •                                                             ii.      Still involved with Asia and Africa through goods, Muslims through works, and Vikings
  4. What caused expansion
    •                                                               i.      Fantastic lands
    •                                                             ii.      Economic motives
    • iii. Religious
    •                                                           iv..      Desire for grandeur and glory, as well as intellectual curiousity and adventure played role
  5. What caused expansion?
    Fantastic lands
    • 1.      Attraction to lands outside Europe due to fantasy literature about other worlds that blossomed in the Middle Ages
    • a.      The Travels of John Mandeville
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Realms with stones and gold; others with giants who eat people; cruel and evil women in the north;
    • b.      Other writers described it as attractive : magical kingdom of Prester John in Africa and a Christian community in s. India
  6. What caused expansion?
    Economic motives: Polos
    • 1.      Muslim control of C. Asia cut Europe off from countries farther east; but, Mongols reopened doors
    • a.      Poles of Venice
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Niccolo and Maffeo (merchants from Venice) and Niccolo’s son, Marco, went to the court of the Mongol ruler Khubilai Khan in 1271
    • 1.      Marco’s experiences are in Travels
    • a.      Most informative of all the descriptions of Asia by medieval European travelers
  7. What caused expansion?
    Economic motives: Followers of Polo
    • a.      Others followed him, but the Ottomans and the breakup of the Mongol Empire reduced Western traffic to the Easat
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      With the closing of overland routes, many people became interested in possibly reaching Asia by sea to gain access to the spices and other precious items of the region
    • 1.      Columbus had a copy of Travels when he began voyage across Atlantic
  8. What caused expansion?
    Economic motives: Renaissance
    • a.      Economic motive looms large in European expansion in the Renaissance
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Many had high hopes of finding new areas of trade, especially more access to spices of East, which came via Arabs, but were expensive
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      In addition to spice trade, many Europeans wanted gold and other precious metals.
    • b.      “To serve God and grow rich”
  9. What caused expansion?
    • 1.      crusading mentality in Portugal and Spain, where Muslims were run out
    • a.      prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal said he was motivated by desire to increase faith of Lord
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      missionaries desired conversion to Christianity
    • 1.      Hernan Cortes, the conqueror of Mexico, wanted to convert the native Mexicans
    • 2.      16th century: secular and spiritual affairs
  10. I.                   The Means for Expansion
    What Made it Possible?

    • a.      Primary motives: God, glory, and gold
    •                                                               i.      Expansion of Europe connected to growth of centralized monarchies during Renaissance
    • Maps
    •                                                             ii.      Ships and Sailing
    •                                                           iii.      Knowledge of wind patterns in Atlantic
  11. a.      What made it possible?
    •                                                               i.      Expansion of Europe connected to growth of centralized monarchies during Renaissance
    • 1.      Renaissance expansion= state enterprise
    • a.      Second half of 15th c: European monarchies increased authority andr resources and were in position to expand
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      France: it meant invasion of Italy
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Portugal: meant going abroad
  12. a.      What made it possible?
    • 1.      Europeans achieved level of wealth and technology that enabled them to make a regular series of voyages beyond Europe
    • a.      The portolani, or charts made by medieval navigators and mathematicians were useful
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Details of coastal contours, distances between ports and compass readings
    • 1.      Due to drawn on flat scale and had no account of curvature of earth, they were of little use
    • a.      Venture beyond European coast: accumulate info about actual shape of earth 
  13. a.      What made it possible?
    Maps: Ptolemy
    • 1.      One of most important world maps was Ptolemy and his Geography
    • a.      Known to Arabs and later translated into Latin translation, becoming available in 1477
    • b.      Map as spherical with three major landmasses: Europe, Asia, Africa, and only two oceans
    • c.       Underestimated circumference of earth, which misled Columbus and others
  14. a.      What made it possible?
    Ships and Sailing
    • 1.      New seaworthy ships and navigational skills
    • a.      Axial rudder and lateen sails with square rig
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Could make ships able to sail against wind and engage in naval warfare and large enough to mount heavy cannons and carry goods long distances
    • b.      Before: sailors used quadrant and Pole Star to guess their latitude
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Useless below equator
    • c.       After: compass and astrolabe
  15. a.      What made it possible?
    Knowledge of wind patterns in Atlantic
    • 1.      First European fleets were hindered by strong north winds
    • 2.      Late 15th century: they tacked out into ocean, where they could catch westerly winds in the vicinity of the Azores that brought them back to the coast of w. Europe
    • a.      Columbus used this technique in his voyages to the Americas, and others too
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Chapter 14.1: On the Brink of a New World (1)
2013-01-09 00:42:58
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Europe and the World: New Encounters, 1500-1800
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