Chapter 14.2: New Horizons: The Portuguese and Spanish Empires (3)

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Chapter 14.2: New Horizons: The Portuguese and Spanish Empires (3)
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2013-01-08 20:46:50
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Europe and the World: New Encounters, 1500-1800
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  1. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Conquistadors
    • a.      Conquistadors were hardy individuals  motivated by glory, greed, and religious crusading zeal
    •                                                               i.      Financed and outfitted privately, not y government
    • 1.      Superior weapons, organizational skills, and determination= success
    • 2.      Benefited from rivalries among native peoples and decimation of the native peoples by European diseases
  2. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica: Before Spaniards
    • a.      Mesoamerica
    •                                                               i.      Before Spaniards, Mesoamerica had numerous civilizations
    • 1.      300 ce: Mayans most sophisticated
    • a.      Built splendid temples and pyraminds, artists, sophisticated calendar
    • b.      Agrarians who cleared rain forests, farmed, and built city-states
    • c.       800: began to decline and collapsed less than a hundred years later
  3. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica: Aztecs
    •                                                               i.      Aztecs began long migration to Valley of Mexico
    • 1.      Capital: Tenochtitlan
    • a.      Next hundred years, they built their city, constructing temples, buildings, houses, causeways across Lake Texcoco to the N, S, and W, linking many islands to the mainland
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Built aqueduct to bring fresh water from a spring four miles away
  4. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New WorldMesoamerica: Aztecs Warriors
    • 1.      Outstanding warriors and wanted to bring surrounding areas under their control
    • a.      15th c: leading city-state in lake region
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Consolidated their rule over much of Mexico, from the Atlantic to the pacific and south to Guatemalan border
    • 1.      New kingdom: not centralized, but semi-independent territories governed by local lords
    • a.      Rulers confirmed in authority by Aztec ruler in return for payment of tribute
  5. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica: Aztecs and the Spanish Conquest
    • 1.      Spanish conquest
    • a.      1519: Spanish expedition ujnder Hernan Cortes, landed at Veracruz, ont eh Gulf of Mexico
    • b.      Marched to Tenochtitlan and jade alliances with city-states that tired of oppressive Aztec rule
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Tlaxcala was important; Aztecs couldn’t conquer it
    • c.       Cortes arrized at Tenochtitlan, was welcomed by Aztec monarch Moctezuma, who believed visiitory represented Quetzalcoatl, the god who departed from homeland before and promised return
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Offered gold and gave them a palace
  6. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New WorldMesoamerica: Aztecs and the Spanish Conquest--> Moctezuma hostage and Aztec disasters
    • a.      Spanish took Moctezuma hostage and pillaged city
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      One year after Cortes arrived, the population revolted and drove invaders from the city, killing many Spaniards
    • b.      Aztecs experienced disasters
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Sickness, pestilence, smallpox due to Europeans killed many
  7. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New WorldMesoamerica: Aztecs and the Spanish Conquest--> Cortes and allies
    • a.      Cortes received new soldiers from allies
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Tlaxcala state provided 50,000 warriors
    • 1.      After four months, the city surrendered
    • a.      Smallpox was their advantage
    • b.      Spanish then embarked on new wave of destruction
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Destroyed pyramids, temples, and palaces, using stones for Spanish gov’t buildings and churches
    • Rivers and canals filled in, ending Aztec Empire
  8. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica: Incas
    • 1.      Small community in Cuzco
    • 2.      1440s: under leadership of Pachakuti, they launched a campaign of conquest that allowed control of the entire region
    • a.      Created a highly centralized sate
    • b.      Cuzo, the capital, was transformed from mud to stone
    • 3.      Under Pachakuti and successors, Topa Inca, and Huayna Inca, the boundaries of the empire extended to Ecuador, c. Chile, and the edge of the Amazon, with about 12 million people
  9. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica
    Incas and Pachakuti
    • a.      Divided realm into four quarters, each ruled by governor
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Quarters divided into provinces, each ruled by governor
    • 1.      Individuals who were chosen to be governors were related to royal family
    • a.      Top of system was emperor, believed to be descended from God
  10. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica
    Incas and Great Builders
    • 1.      Great builders
    • a.      24,800 milkes of roads
    • b.      Two major roadways extended in N-S direction, one through Andes and other along coast
    • c.       Rest houses and storage depots
    • Bridges
  11. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica
    Incas and Spanish Pizarro
    • 1.      Spanish
    • a.      Francisco Pizarro landed with 180 men with steel weapons, gunpowder, and horses
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Advantage: Incas already succumbed to smallpox
    • 1.      No immunities, causing devastation, even to emperor
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      After emperor’s death, two sons claimed throneà civil war
    • 1.      Pizarro took advantage of this by seizing Atahualpa, whose forces just defeated his brother’s
    • a.      Armed only with stones, arrows, and light spears, Incan soldiers were no match for the charging horses
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      After killing Atahualpa, Pizarro marched on Cuzco and captured the Incan capital
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      1535: Pizarro established capital at Lima for new colony of Spanish empire
  12. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica
    Incas and Administration of the Spanish Empire
    • 1.      Policy towards Indians of New World= confusion, misguided paternalism, and cruel exploitation
    • a.      Queen Isabella declared natives to be subjects of Castile and instituted the Spanish encomienda, an economic and social system that permitted the conquering Spaniards to collect tribute from natives and use them for labor
  13. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica-->Incas--> In return
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      In return, the holders of this were to protect, pay, and supervise the spiritual needs of the Indians= settlers do as they please
    • 1.      They did, ignoring the government and brutally using Indians for own economic interests
    • a.      Plantations, mines, mita (system allowing authorities to draft native labor to work in silver mines
  14. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica
    Incas--> Administration of the Spanish Empire--> forced labor
    • 1.      Forced labor, starvation and disease= devastating
    • a.      Smallpox, measles, typhus (30-40% dead)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Hispaniola: 100,000 nativesà 300
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Mexico: 11 million--> 6.5 million
    • b.      People protested, especially Dominican friars
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Government, due to Bartolome de Las Cases, ended encomienda and protected natives
  15. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica
    Incas--> Administration of the Spanish Empire--> Viceroys
    • 1.      Viceroys
    • a.      Spanish possessions divided into two major administrative units:
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      New Spain, with center in Mexico City, and Peru, governed by viceroy in Lima
    • b.      Each viceroy served as king’s chief civil and military officer and was aided by advisory groups called audiencias, which also functioned as supreme judicial bodies
  16. I.                   The Spanish Empire in the New World
    Mesoamerica
    Incas--> Administration of the Spanish Empire--> Papal Agreement
    • 1.      By papal agreement, the Catholic monarchs of Spain weregiven rights over ecclesiastical affairs in New World
    • a.      Appoint bishops and clergy, build churches, collect fees, and supervise religious orders
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Catholic missionaries sconverted and baptized many Indians, which brought organization and institutions of Catholicism to New World
    • 1.      Dioceses, parishes, cathedrals, schools, hospitals, and Spanish Inquisition, first in Peru and then Mexico

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