Chapter 14.3: New Rivals on the World Stage (1)

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  1. __and __were the first to explore. However, the __, __, and __replaced them.
    • Portugal
    • Spain
    • Dutch
    • French
    • Englace
  2. Africa: The Slave Trade
    Primary Objective
    • a.      Primary objective of Portuguese in sailing around Africa: sea route to Spice Islandsà found profits in Africa
    •                                                               i.      Built forts and tried to dominate trade in gold
    • 1.      However, the Dutch seized these forts along the W. African coast and took control of Portuguese trade across Indian Oceanà Dutch East India Company
  3. Africa: The Slave Trade
    Dutch East India Company
    •                                                               i.      Trading company established in 1602 under government sponsorship
    •                                                             ii.      Set up settlement in s. Africa, at Cape of Good Hope, which was supposed to be a base for food and other provisions to Dutch ships on way to Spice Islandsà permanent colony
    • 1.      Dutch farmers, called Boers, began to settle in areas outside city of Cape Town, attracted by climate and freedom from diseases
  4. Africa: The Slave Trade
    European exploration and Origins
    • a.      European exploration of African coastline affected coastal people
    •                                                               i.      Trade in slaves increased, leadingthousands of Africans to be removed from homes and shipped to plantations in New World
    • b.      Origins
    •                                                               i.      Not new; ancient and 15th century: steady
    •                                                             ii.      Primary market was Middle East= domestic servants or household dhelp or agricultural workers
    •                                                           iii.      Portuguese primarily replaced European slaves with African ones
    • 1.      2nd half of fifteenth century: 1000 a year= domestic servants
    • a.      Discovery of Americas and lanting of sugar changed this
  5. Africa: The Slave Trade
    origins and Cane Sugar
    •                                                               i.      Cane sugar first introduced from Middle East during Crusdaes
    • 1.      End of 15th century: pOrttuguse set up sugarplantations worked by African laborers on island off coast of Africa
    • 2.      16th century: sugarcane plantations set up along eastern coast of Brazil and on several Caribbean islands
    • 3.      Growing it= skill and laborà plantations that needed more people than Indians could provideà African slaves (since Africa wasn’t a good place to grow it)
    • a.      1518= Spanish ship carried first boatload straight to New World
  6. Africa: The Slave Trade
    •                                                               i.       In 2 centuries, it grwew and became part of triangular trade connecting Europe, Africa and the American continents that characterized the new Atlantic economy
    • 1.      European merchant ships carried European goods and traded them for slaves, which went to Americas and were soldà merchants then bought tobacco, molasses, etc. and shipped it back to Europe for the markets
  7. Africa: The Slave Trade
    Growth Statistics
    • 1.      275k African slaves exported during 16th c., with 2000 annually going to Americas
    • 2.      Over a million in 17th c. and 6 in 18th, when trade spread to East Africa
    • 3.      19th: 2 million
    • 4.      16th-19th: 10 million African slaves to Americas
    • a.      ½ were transported in British ships, while the rest in French, Dutch, Portuguese, Danish, and later American ships
  8. Africa: The Slave Trade
    Reasons for Growth Statistics
    • 1.      High death rate due to Middle Passage (middle leg of the triangular trade route)= close packing with chains and no sanitary rooms or standing room for 100 days
    • a.      10% death rate and higher if storms
    • 2.      Survivors of journey subject to death from disease
    • 3.      Death rates low for slaves born and raised in New World= immunity to diseases
    • 4.      Owners discouraged slave pregnancies
    • a.      Buying was less expensive than raising
  9. Africa: The Slave Trade
    Growth: Before
    • 1.      Africans were prisoners of war
    • a.      Servants or wageless workers for local ruler
    • b.      Europeans then bought slaves from local African merchants at slave markets in return for gold, guns, etc.
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Supply from nearby regions, but with demand they moved inland
    • 1.      Some local rulers concerned with impact on their societyà ignored
    • a.      Slave trade= $$$
  10. Africa: The Slave Trade
    Growth Belielfs
    • 1.      Historians thought Europenas controlled terms of slave trade and were able to obtain victims at bargain prices
    • a.      African middlemen were active in process and dictated price and number of slaves to Europeans
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Payment in goods
  11. Africa: The Slave Trade
    Effects Varied
    •                                                               i.      Varied from area to area
    • 1.      Tragic on lives of slaves and families
    • 2.      Economical: importation of cheap manufactured goods from Europe undermined local cottage industries and forced families into poverty
    • 3.      Depopulation and deprivation of African communities of youngest and strongest men and women
  12. Africa: The Slave Trade
    Effects: Political
    • 1.      Need to maintain constant supplyà more warfare and violence: increased raids and wars on neighboring peoples by African chiefs with guns received through trade
    • 2.      Devastating effects
    • a.      Benin in W. Africa
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Brilliant and creative society in 16thà slave tradeà population drop and increased warfareà people lose faith in their gods, their art deteriorated, human sacrifice more commonà 19th century: corrupt, enabling British to take advantage
  13. Africa: The Slave Trade
    Effects: use
    •                                                               i.      Use of black slaves: acceptable to Western society
    • 1.      Blacks inferior until Society of Friends criticized slavery and excluded members who practiced it form churchà Europe more against slavery
    • a.      French Revolution in 1790s for French to abolish slavery
    • b.      British followed in 180
    • c.       Continued in US until Civil War
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Chapter 14.3: New Rivals on the World Stage (1)
2013-01-09 01:46:20
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Europe and the World: New Encounters, 1500-1800
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