Chapter 14.3 New Rivals on the World Stage (3)

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marquezd1
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191821
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Chapter 14.3 New Rivals on the World Stage (3)
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2013-01-08 20:57:21
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Europe and the World: New Encounters, 1500-1800
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  1. French and British in India
    Portuguese
    • a.      Portuguese fleet arrived at Calicut in 1498à Indian divided into hindu and muslim kingdoms
    •                                                               i.      On verge of new era of unity that would be brought about by Mughals
  2. French and British in India
    Mughal Empire
    •                                                               i.      Founders not natives of India but came from mountainous regions north of the ganges River valley
    • 1.      Babur
    • a.      Father descended from Asian conqueror tamerlane
    • b.      Mother from Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan
    • 2.      Akbar
    • a.      Babur’s grandson who brought Mughal rule ot most of India, creating the greatest Indian empire since the Mauryan dynasty
  3. French and British in India
    Impact of Western Powers
    •                                                               i.      First to arrive in India= Portuguese
    • 1.      Dominated regional trade in Indian Ocean, but at end of 16th century, the English and Dutch arrived
    • a.      Both competed with Portuglal and each other for trade
  4. French and British in India
    Impact of Western Powers: 1st half of 17th
    •                                                               i.      1st half of 17th century: English presence in India increased
    • 1.      1650: English trading posts at Surat, Fort William, and Madras, where English ships carried Indian goods to East Indies for spices, which were taken back to England
  5. French and British in India
    Impact of Western Powers: 1st half of 17th--> Success with British
    • 1.      Successà rivals (Dutch and French)
    •  a.      Dutch left their interests for spice trade
    • b.      French persistent and established own forts on east coast
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Competed successfully with British for a time, capturing the Brtitish fort at Madras
  6. French and British in IndiaImpact of Western Powers: 1st half of 17th--> Success with British
    British saved and aided
    • 1.      British saved by Sir Robert Clive, an aggressive British empire-builder who eventually became the chief representative of the East India Compaby in India
    • 2.      Also aided by refusal of French government to provide financial support for French efforts in far-off India
    • a.      French restricted to sertain forts and territories
  7. French and British in IndiaImpact of Western Powers: 1st half of 17th--> Success--> Clie
    1.      In the meantime, Clie began to consolidate British control in Bengal, where the local ruler attacked Fort William and imprisioned the local British population in the “Black Hole of Calcutta” (an underground prison for holding the prisoners)
  8. French and British in IndiaImpact of Western Powers: 1st half of 17th--> Success--> battle of Plassey
    • a.      1757: small British force numbering about three thousand defeated a Mughal-led army more than ten times its size in the Battle of Plassey
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Victoryà British East India Company received from the Mughal court the authority to collect taxes from lands in the area surrounding Calcutta
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      During the 7 Years War, the Birtish forced the French to withdraw completely from India
  9. Impact of the Western Powers:
    To Officials of the East India Company
    • 1.      To officials of the East India Company, expanding hteir authority into the interior of India seemed logical
    • a.      Made sense to seek regular revenues that would pay for the expensive military operations in India
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      To historians: major step in gradual transfer of all fo the Indian subcontinent to the British East India Company

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