Chapter 14.3 New Rivals on the World Stage (4)

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  1. China
    • a.      1514: Portuguese fleet reached China, who disregarded it since they were at their zenith as most magnificent civilization on earth
    •                                                               i.      First contact since journeys of March Polo
    • b.      Empire very large
    •                                                               i.      Europeans viewed as barbarians
    •                                                             ii.      To the Chinese rulers, all other rulers were “younger brothers” of the Chinese emperor and he was the Son of Heaven
  2. China
    Ming Dynasty
    •                                                               i.      Began new era when Portuguese fleet arrived
    • 1.      Strong rulers extended rule into Mongolia and C. Asia
    • 2.      Reconquered Vietnam
    • 3.      Strengthened the Great wall
    • 4.      Made peace with nomadic tribesman
  3. China
    Ming Dynasty Downfall
    • 1.      Major epidemic devastated the population
    • a.      Suffering caused by epidemic helped spark a peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1644: He and forces occupied capital of Beijing, causing last Ming emperor to kill himself
    • 2.      This overthrow allowed Manchus, a farming and hunting people who lived northeast of China to conquer Beijingà Zicheng’s army fellà new dynasty, Qing
  4. China
    Qing Dynasty
    •                                                               i.      Strong early rulers pacified the country
    • 1.      Corrected most serious social and economic ills
    • 2.      Restored peace and prosperity
    •                                                             ii.      Two Qing monarchs, Kangxi and Qianlong, ruled for well over a century, from the middle of the seventeeth to the end of the eighteenth
    • Responsible for greatness of Manchu China
  5. China
    Western Inroads: Manchu dynasty
    •                                                               i.      First signs of internal decay in Manchu dynasty evident
    • 1.      Qing military campaigns along frontier expensive and placed heavy demands on treasury
    • 2.      Increasing pressure on land because of population growth led to economic hardships for peasants and rebellion
  6. China
    Decline of Qing Dynasty: First Conflict
    • 1.      First conflict form north, were Russian traders sought skins and furs
    • a.      Formal diplomatic relations between China and Russian established in 1689 provided regular trade between the two
  7. China
    Decline of the Qing Dynasty: Sea Foreigners
    • 1.      Sea foreigners= difficult
    • a.      English replaced Portuguese as dominant force in European trade
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Used East India Company to create first trading post at Canton in 1699
    • 1.      Trade with China (esp. tea and silk) increased
    • a.      To limit contacts between Europeans and Chinese, the Qing government confined all European traders to small island outside Canton and allowed residence only from October through March
  8. China
    Decline of the Qing Dynasty
    British reaction of Qing government confinement
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      At first, British accepted this= profit for company
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      End of 18th: British demanded access to other Chinese coastal cities and wanted the country to be open to British goodsà British mission under lord Macartney (1793) led him to visit Beijing to press for liberalization of trade restrictions
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                           iii.      Emperor Qianlong had no interest in their productsà Chinese would pay (Macartney said they’d be dashed to pieces)
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Chapter 14.3 New Rivals on the World Stage (4)
2013-01-09 02:03:26
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Europe and the World: New Encounters 1500-1800
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