CSCS ch.1

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bcb2127
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191827
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CSCS ch.1
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2013-01-08 21:28:23
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CSCS
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CSCS ch.1
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  1. _-band: dark band that corresponds with the alignment of the myosin filaments
    _-zone: center of the sarcomere
    _-band: light band that corresponds with the areas in two adjacent sarcomeres that contain only actin filaments
    _-bridge: in the center of the sarcomere, where adjacent myosin filaments anchor to each other
    _-line: located at the end of a sarcomere, anchors actin filaments, repeated throughout entire myofibril
    • A band
    • H zone
    • I band
    • M bridge
    • Z line
  2. ______: type of monofilament: thin filament about 6 nm in diameter, and consists of two strands arranged in a double helix
    ______: thick filament; contains up to 200 molecules
    ______: protein molecule which runs along the length of the actin filament in the groove of the double helix
    _____: a protein situated at regular intervals along the actin filaments that has a high affinity for calcium ions
    • actin
    • myosin
    • tropomyosin
    • troponin
  3. _____ _____: an electrical nerve impulse
    action potential
  4. ______ muscle contraction: occur when the total tension developed inĀ  all the cross-bridges of a muscle is sufficient to overcome any resistance to shorten.
    concentric
  5. ____-____: globular heads protrude away from the myosin filament at regular intervals
    cross-bridge
  6. ______- further from the trunk (anatomical terms)
    ______-closer to the feet
    ______-closer to the trunk
    ______-closer to the head

    _____-proximal attachement
    _____-the distal attachment
    • distal
    • inferior
    • proximal
    • superior
    • origin
    • insertion
  7. _____ muscle contraction: occurs when the tension developed in the cross-briges is less than the external resistance, and the muscle lengthens despite contact between the myosin cross-bridgeheads and the actin filament.
    eccentric
  8. ______- connective tissue (outer layer)
    ______- fibrous connective tissue that covers skeletal muscle (each connective fiber specifically and then encircled by the sarcolemma)
    _____- connective tissue that covers muscle fasiculi
    • epimysium
    • endomysium
    • perimysium
  9. ______: groups of muscle fibers (bundles) that contains up to 150 muscle fibers, with the bundles surrounded by connective tissue
    fasciculus
  10. ____-____ relationship: peak force production is usually seen at resting length or slightly greater than resting length.
    length-tension relationship (that's a bad definition)
  11. ____ ____: a neuron and all the fibers that it innervates
    ____ ____: muscle cells (myofibrils); long, cylindrical cells (50-100 mm in diameter)
    _____: contain the apparatus that contracts that the muscle cell
    • motor unit
    • muscle fiber
    • myofibril
  12. ______: muscle that has muscle fibers that align obliquely with the tendon and the angle of pennation with the tendon can affect the number of sarcomeres per cross-sectional area and thus the maximum force capabilities
    pennate
  13. ______: specialized connective tissue covering all bones; any contraction of the muscle pulls on the tendon, and in turn, the bone
    periosteum
  14. ______: high tension is developed in a muscle even before movement occurs when lifting weights because the weight must be supported isometrically
    preloading
  15. _____: smallest contractile unit of skeletal muscle
    sarcomere
  16. ______: reduced muscle size and strength
    sarcopenia
  17. ______: cytoplasm of muscle fiber; contain contractile components which consists of protein filaments, other proteins, stored glycogen and fat particles, enzymes, and specialized organelles such as mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
    sarcoplasm
  18. ______ _____: intricate system of tubules that are parallel to and surround myofibril that terminates as vesicles in the vicinity of the Z-lines
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  19. _____-_____ theory: states that the actin filaments at each end of the sarcomere slide inward on myosin filaments, pulling the z-lines toward the center of the sarcomere and thus shortening the muscle fiber.
    sliding filament theory
  20. ____-_____ cycle: prestretching a muscle just prior to a concentric action can enhance force production during the subsequent contraction
    stretch-shortening cycle
  21. ______- connects muscle to bone
  22. tendon
  23. _______- pattern of a T-tubule spaced between the perpendicular to two sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles
    triad
  24. __-____: transverse tubules that run perpendicular to sarcoplasmic reticulum and terminate in the vicinity of the Z line between two vesicles
    T-tubule
  25. Fiber types:
    Type _: large number of mitochondria, high aerobic capacity, dense capillary concentration
    Type ___: fast glycolytic, muscle fiber fatigues rapidly and has few mitochondria, low aerobic capacity, and few capillaries
    Type___: fast twitch oxidative, muscle fiber has some fatigue resistant qualities
    • Type I
    • Type IIb
    • Type IIa

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