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_-band: dark band that corresponds with the alignment of the myosin filaments
_-zone: center of the sarcomere
_-band: light band that corresponds with the areas in two adjacent sarcomeres that contain only actin filaments
_-bridge: in the center of the sarcomere, where adjacent myosin filaments anchor to each other
_-line: located at the end of a sarcomere, anchors actin filaments, repeated throughout entire myofibril
- A band
- H zone
- I band
- M bridge
- Z line
______: type of monofilament: thin filament about 6 nm in diameter, and consists of two strands arranged in a double helix
______: thick filament; contains up to 200 molecules
______: protein molecule which runs along the length of the actin filament in the groove of the double helix
_____: a protein situated at regular intervals along the actin filaments that has a high affinity for calcium ions
_____ _____: an electrical nerve impulse
______ muscle contraction: occur when the total tension developed in all the cross-bridges of a muscle is sufficient to overcome any resistance to shorten.
____-____: globular heads protrude away from the myosin filament at regular intervals
______- further from the trunk (anatomical terms)
______-closer to the feet
______-closer to the trunk
______-closer to the head
_____-the distal attachment
_____ muscle contraction: occurs when the tension developed in the cross-briges is less than the external resistance, and the muscle lengthens despite contact between the myosin cross-bridgeheads and the actin filament.
______- connective tissue (outer layer)
______- fibrous connective tissue that covers skeletal muscle (each connective fiber specifically and then encircled by the sarcolemma)
_____- connective tissue that covers muscle fasiculi
______: groups of muscle fibers (bundles) that contains up to 150 muscle fibers, with the bundles surrounded by connective tissue
____-____ relationship: peak force production is usually seen at resting length or slightly greater than resting length.
length-tension relationship (that's a bad definition)
____ ____: a neuron and all the fibers that it innervates
____ ____: muscle cells (myofibrils); long, cylindrical cells (50-100 mm in diameter)
_____: contain the apparatus that contracts that the muscle cell
- motor unit
- muscle fiber
______: muscle that has muscle fibers that align obliquely with the tendon and the angle of pennation with the tendon can affect the number of sarcomeres per cross-sectional area and thus the maximum force capabilities
______: specialized connective tissue covering all bones; any contraction of the muscle pulls on the tendon, and in turn, the bone
______: high tension is developed in a muscle even before movement occurs when lifting weights because the weight must be supported isometrically
_____: smallest contractile unit of skeletal muscle
______: reduced muscle size and strength
______: cytoplasm of muscle fiber; contain contractile components which consists of protein filaments, other proteins, stored glycogen and fat particles, enzymes, and specialized organelles such as mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
______ _____: intricate system of tubules that are parallel to and surround myofibril that terminates as vesicles in the vicinity of the Z-lines
_____-_____ theory: states that the actin filaments at each end of the sarcomere slide inward on myosin filaments, pulling the z-lines toward the center of the sarcomere and thus shortening the muscle fiber.
sliding filament theory
____-_____ cycle: prestretching a muscle just prior to a concentric action can enhance force production during the subsequent contraction
______- connects muscle to bone
_______- pattern of a T-tubule spaced between the perpendicular to two sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles
__-____: transverse tubules that run perpendicular to sarcoplasmic reticulum and terminate in the vicinity of the Z line between two vesicles
Type _: large number of mitochondria, high aerobic capacity, dense capillary concentration
Type ___: fast glycolytic, muscle fiber fatigues rapidly and has few mitochondria, low aerobic capacity, and few capillaries
Type___: fast twitch oxidative, muscle fiber has some fatigue resistant qualities
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