Chapter 14.3 New Rivals on the World Stage (6)

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  1. The Americas
    • a.      16th: Spain and Portugal made large colonial empires in the Americas
    •                                                               i.      Portugal profited in Brazil
    •                                                             ii.      Spain maintained S. American empire, but importance as commercial power declined in 17th c. due to drop in output of silver mines and poverty of Spanish monarchy
    • a.      17th: Portugal and Spain challenged by Dutch, English, and French American empires
  2. The Americas:
    West Indies French and English Colonial Empires
    • a.      West Indies
    •                                                               i.      French and English colonial empires in New World included West Indies that were plantation economies worked by African slaves, producing coffee, sugar, tobacco, etc.
    • 1.      English: Barbados, Jamaica, Bermuda
    • 2.      French: Saint-Domingue, Martinique, Guadeloupe
  3. The Americas
    West Indies Sugar Factories
    •                                                               i.      Sugar factories
    • 1.      Sugar plantations in the Caribbean
    • 2.      British colony of Jamaic produced 50k tons of sugar annually with slave labor of 200k blacks
    • 3.      French in Saint-Domingue had 500k slaves working on three thousand plantations, producing 100k tons of sugar a year, but at expense of high slave death rate from treatment
    • a.      Saint- Domingueà firs tslave uprising in 1798
  4. The Americas
    British North America
    • a.      British North America
    •                                                               i.      Although Spain claimed all of North America as their empire, other nations ignored claim
    • 1.      Dutch were first to establish settlements on N. American continent
    • a.      1609 with Henry Hudson, an English exploerer hired by Dutch
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      W/in a few years, the Dutch established New Netherland
    • Dutch initially settled in Hudson River Valley (Staten Island/ Harlem tell us this)
  5. The Americas
    British North America Competition 
    • a.      Competition from English and French and years of warfare with those rivals led to decline of Dutch commercial empire
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1664: English seized colony of New Netherland and renamed it New York
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Right after, the Dutch West India Company went bankrupt
  6. The Americas
    English Colonies in N. America
    • 1.      English colonies in North America
    • a.      First was Jamestown in 1607
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Barely survivedà not helpful to quick profits
    • b.      Desire of self religious practices and economic interests= successful colonization by Massachusetts Bay Company
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      4000 settlers in early years, but by 1660= 40,000 and by end of 17th century, the English had control over much of eastern seaboard of present United States
  7. The Americas
    British North America
    • a.      13 colonies, thickly populated (1.5 mil people by 1750) and prosperous
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Run by British Board of Trade, the royal Council , and Parilainment, these 13 colonies had legislatures that acted independently
    • 1.      Merchants in cities like Boston, Philly, New York, and Charleston resented and resisted regulation from British government
  8. The Americas
    British North America Roles
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      British colonies in both N. America and West Indies assigned roles in keeping with mercantilist theory
    • 1.      Provided raw materials for mother country while buying latter’s manufactured goods
    • 2.      Naviagtion acts regulated what could be taken from and sold to colonies
    • Supposed to provide balanced trade
  9. The Americas
    French North America
    • a.      1534: Jacques Cartier discovered Saint Lawrence River and claimed Canada for French
    • b.      1608: Samuel de Champlain settled at Quebec, leading the French to become more interested in Canada as a colony
    • c.       1663: Canada was property of French crown and administered by French government like French province
  10. The Americas
    French North America
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Run autocratically as vast trading area
    • 1.      Inability of French state to get people to emigrate to Canadian possessions= small population
    • a.      Mid 18th: 15k French Canadians
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      French failed to provide adequate men or money, allowing their European wars to take precedence over conquest of N. American continent
  11. The Americas
    French North America: Treaty of Utrecht
    a.      1713: Treaty of Utrecht: French began to cede some American possessions to their British rival until 7 Years War, where they’d surrender rest of Canadian lands in 1763
  12. The Americas
    British vs French
    • a.      Also evident in Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires in Latin America
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Decline of Spain and Portugal led the two states to depend on resources form colonies, causing imposing strict mercantilist rules to keep others out
  13. The Americas
    British Vs Frence: Spain
    1.      Spain: tried to limit all trade with its colonies to Spanish ships, but British and French too powerful  to be excluded
  14. The Americas
    British vs. French: Spain and British
    a.      British tricked Portuguese into allowing them into lucrative Brazilian trade
  15. The Americas
    British vs. French: French
    a.      French were the first to break into Spanish Latin American market when the French Bourbons became kings of Spain at the beginning of the 18th century
  16. The Americas
    British vs. French
    Britain's first entry
    Britain’s first entry into Spanish American markets was in 1713, when the British were granted the privilege (asiento) to transport 4500 slaves a year to Spanish Latin America 
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Chapter 14.3 New Rivals on the World Stage (6)
2013-01-09 02:18:38
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Europe and the World, New Encounters: 1500-1800
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