Chapter 14.4 The Impact of European Expansion (1)

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marquezd1
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191830
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Chapter 14.4 The Impact of European Expansion (1)
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2013-01-08 21:26:34
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Europe in the World: New Encounters, 1500-1800
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  1. First two great colonial powers were __and __à decline led to __prominenceà rivalries with __and __à (18th) __
    • Spain
    • Portugal 
    • Dutch
    • England
    • France 
    • Great Britain
  2. The Conquered
    Different Regions= different effects
    Native Americas
    • a.      Different regions= different effects
    •                                                               i.      Native Americans destroyed due to sophistication not being appreciated
    • 1.      Devastating losses of population from European diseases, ancent social and political structures replaced by European culture, religion, language, etc. 
  3. The Conquered
    Africa
    • 1.      Estimates of the population in W. Africa say that slave trade negated rather than declined population
    • 2.      Politically and socially, the slave trade encouraged growth of territiories, where leaders wared for slaves to trade for guns and powder
    • a.      Without slave trade, they were vulnerable
  4. The Conquered
    Asia
    • 1.      Portuguese trading posts little impact
    • 2.      Dutch control of Indonesian archipelago pervasive
    • 3.      China and Japan little effect
    • 4.      India subject to British encroachment
  5. The Conquered
    Central and South America
    • 1.      Multiracial due to intermarriage
    • a.      Spanish and Portuguese settlers were few in number and males
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Used females for sex and marriage
    • b.      Native American Indians+ Europeans= mestizos
    • c.       Africans brought in to work plantations
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Africans and whites= mulattoes
  6. The Conquered
    Ecology
    • 1.      Europeans brought horses and cattle, advancing life of Indians
    • a.      Cattle farmingà growing maize and large estates for cattle raising
    • b.      S. America= great exporter of beef
    • c.       New crops and carried New World plants with them 
  7. The Conquered
    Catholic Missionaries
    •                                                               i.      Missionaries spread Christianity
    • 1.      Spanish and Portuguese determined to Christianize natives
    • a.      Policy gave Catholic church important role in New One, adding to its power
    • 2.      Missionaries brought Indians together into villages, where they were converted, taught trades, and encouraged to grow crops
    • a.      Missionaries controlled their lives and helped make sure they’d remain members of empire
    • b.      Missions served as military barriers to foreign encroachment
  8. The Conquered
    Catholic Church
    • 1.      Constructed hospitals, orphanages, and schools
    • a.      Monastic schools taught Indians reading, writing, and arithmetic
    • 2.      For women= outlets through nunneries and religious order
    • a.      Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      One of Latin America’s best-known literary figures who wrote poetry and prose and promoted the education of women
  9. The Conquered
    Church Missionaries
    • 1.      To china, especially the Jesuits
    • a.      Highly educated who knew philosophy and science, brought clocks,e tc. 
  10. The Conquered
    Catholic Church Jesuits and China
    • 1.      Used openness and similarities with Confucian ethics to help Chinese convert
    • a.      Effort undermined by squabbling among religious orders themselves
    • 2.      Allowed new Ctatholics to continue practice of ancestor worship to make conversion easier
    • a.      Jealous Dominicans and Franciscans complained to pope, who condemned it; Chinese authorities then began to suppress Christian activities throughout China 
  11. The Conquered
    Catholic Church Jesuits and Japan
    • a.      Converted local nobles
    • b.      Practice of destroying local idos and shrines and turning temples into Christian schools or churches led to execution of missionaries and Japanese converts after Spanish Franciscans tried it
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      When missionaries tried to interfere in local politics, Tokugawa expelled all missionaries and persecuted Japanese Christians

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