Paramedic Test #8 - Chapters 19, 20, 21, 23, 24

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  1. What is the globe?
    Eyeball, spherical structure measuring 1 inch in diameter.  
  2. What is the occulomotor nerve?
    Third cranial nerve controls the muscles that cause motion of the eyeballs and upper lids.
  3. What is the optic nerve?
    Second cranial nerve provides sense of vision. (2 eyes, 2nd nerve)
  4. What is the sclera?
    White of the eye, tough fibrous coat helps maintain the shape of the eye and protect the contents. Hepatitis - can be yellow.  
  5. What is the cornea?
    Transparent anterior portion of the eye that overlays the iris and the pupil.  Cataract - clouding of the cornea.  
  6. What is the Conjunctiva?
    Mucous membrane that covers the sclera and internal surfaces of the eyelids but not the iris.  
  7. What is the iris?
    Pigmented part of the eye that surrounds the pupil
  8. What is the pupil?
    Circular adjustable opening within the iris through which light passes. 
  9. What is the lens?
    Transparent structure that can change thickness to focus light on the retina at the back of the eye. 
  10. What is the retina?
    Posterior aspect of the eye, receives light impulse and converts them to nerve signals, connected to optic nerve. 
  11. What is the anterior eye chamber?
    Portion of the globe between the lens and the cornea, and filled with aqueous humor - a clear watery fluid, can be replenished if lost
  12. What is the visual cortex?
    Where the optic nerve transmits images to the brain and it's converted to conscious images.  
  13. What is the posterior chamber of the eye?
    Portion of the eye between the iris and the lens.  Vitreous humor inside it and helps maintain the shape of the globe.
  14. What is diabetic retinopathy?
    1 in 3 diabetics have it.  Affects the smaller blood vessels in the retina.  Blurred vision, floaters, blind spots, or blindness. 
  15. What is disconjugate gaze?
    Discoordination between movements of the two eyes. 
  16. Patient assessment for the eyes -
    Orbital rim - ecchymosis, swelling, lacerations, and tenderness

    Eyelids - ecchymosis, swelling, lacerations, or any abnormalities

    Corneas - foreign bodies

    Conjunctivae - redness, pus, inflammation, foreign bodies

    Globes - redness, abnormal pigmentation, lacerations, growths, discoloration, differences between eyes. 
  17. What is the adnexa?
    Surrounding structures of the eye
  18. What is Anisocoria?
    When pupils are not of equal size.  Significant in injuries with closed head trauma. 
  19. What is conjunctivitis?
    Pink eye, where the conjunctiva becomes red and inflamed.  
  20. What is sympathetic eye movement?
    When both eyes move together.  Covering both eyes when one eye is damaged prevents this. 
  21. What is chalazion?
    Small swollen bump on external eyelid
  22. What is hordeolum?
    Stye, red tender lump on eyelid or lid margin
  23. What is glaucoma?
    Group of conditions that lead to increased intraoccular pressure, leading cause of blindness. 
  24. What is hyphema?
    Bleeding into the anterior chamber that obscures vision partially or completely.  
  25. What is iritis?
    Inflammation of the iris, aka anterior uveitis. 
  26. What is papilledema?
    Results from swelling or inflammation of the optic nerve at the rear part of the eye.  Severe headaches, nausea, temp vision loss, narrowing vision fields.  
  27. What is retinal detachment?
    Separation of the inner layers of the retina from the underlying choroid (vascular membrane that nourishes the retina). 
  28. What is periorbital cellulitis?
    Preseptal cellulitis or eyelid cellulitis, it presents as a painful, red, swollen eyelid.  
  29. What is orbital cellulitis?
    Infection within the eye socket and is considered a medical emergency.  Avoid formation of an abscess.  Treat both forms of cellulitis with IV antibiotics.  
  30. What is the external ear?
    Pinna, external auditory canal, exterior part of the tympanic membrane
  31. What is middle ear?
    Inner portion of the tympanic membrane, and ossicles (three small bones - malleus, incus, and stapes)
  32. What is the inner ear?
    Cochlea and semicircular canals
  33. What is Tinnitis?
    Ringing in the ears
  34. What is Battle sign?
    Discoloration and bruising behind the pinna. 
  35. What is cerumen?
    Ear wax.  Prevents dirt and water from entering the middle ear canal
  36. What is labyrinthitis?
    Vertigo or loss of balance after an ear infection or upper respiratory infection. Antiemetic for nausea
  37. What is meniere disease?
    A endolymphatic rupture creates increased pressure in the cochlear duct, then leads to damage to the organ of Corti and semicirular canal.  
  38. What is otitis?
    Infections from bacterial growth in the ear canal.  Outer and middle ear.  More common in children because of angle of canal.  Treatments include topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. 
  39. What is the treatment for perforated tympanic membrane?
    Spontaneous healing.  
  40. What are the turbinates?
    Layers of bone in the nasal chamber, covered with a moist lining.  Air is moistened when it passes them.  
  41. What are the paranasal sinuses?
    Decrease the weight of the skull and provide resonance for the voice.  Hollow cavities.  
  42. What is epistaxis?
    Nosebleed.  Treated by placing the patient in the sitting position, leaning forward, and pinch the nostrils together.  
  43. What is rhinitis?
    Nasal disorder most common in kids and adolescents.  Caused by allergens, pollen, dust. Keep patient in Fowler position
  44. What is sinusitis?
    Symptoms include thick nasal discharge, sinus and facial pressure, headache and fever.  Treated with saline rinse and decongestant.  Antibiotics if longer than 10 days.  
  45. What is the pulp?
    Center of the tooth containing blood vessels, nerves, and specialized connective tissue.  
  46. What is dentin?
    Principal mass of the tooth, stronger than bone.  
  47. What is alveoli?
    Bony sockets for the teeth in the mandible.  
  48. What is mastication?
    Chewing of the food by the teeth
  49. What is the hypoglossal nerve?
    Cranial nerve number 12.  Motor functions to the muscles of the tongue.  
  50. What is the glossopharyngeal nerve?
    Cranial nerve #9.  Provides taste sensation to the posterior portions of the tongue and carries parasympathetic fibers to the salivary glands on each side of the face.  
  51. What is trigeminal nerve?
    The mandibular branch of this nerve, Cranial nerve #5, provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastications.  
  52. What is facial nerve?
    Cranial nerve #7m motor activity to facial expression, provides the sense of taste to the anterior two thirds of the tongue.  
  53. What is Dentalgia?
    Toothache, can be the starting point for the development of a dental abscess, when bacterial growth spreads directly from the cavity to the gums.  If fever accompanies, consider systemic and treat with antibiotics. 
  54. What are cold sores?
    Painful sores on the lips and around the mouth caused by a type of herpes virus. 
  55. What are canker sores?
    Painful sores in the mouth or on the gums caused by bacteria or virus 
  56. What is thrush?
    Yeast infection that causes white patches in the mouth or tongue.  AKA oral cadidiasis.  
  57. What is leukoplakia?
    Smokers disease that causes excess cell growth in the mouth and presents with white patches.  
  58. What is gingivitis?
    Red swollen gums that bleed during brushing
  59. What is bad breath?
    Usually linked to impacted plaque and poor oral hygiene.  
  60. What is ludwig angina?
    Type of cellulitis caused by bacteria from an infected tooth root or mouth injury.  Because of swelling, there may be rapid airway obstruction.  Early treatment with steroids.  
  61. What is epiglotitus?
    Inflammation of the epiglottis.  May have fever, sore throat, painful swallowing (dysphagia), stridor, and respiratory distress.  Get into tripod position, and maintain airway.     
  62. What is laryngitis?
    Swelling and inflammation of the larynx associated with hoarseness or loss of voice.  Caused by virus, similar to cold or flu.  Presents with swollen lymph nodes or glands in the neck.    
  63. What is tracheitis?
    Bacterial infection of the trachea.  Staph infection.  Symptoms are deep croup-like cough, DB, high fever, high pitched stridor. 
  64. What is tonsillitis?
    Swelling and inflamation of the tonsils, or two oval shaped pads at the back of the throat.  Caused by viral infections.  Difficulty swallowing, sore throat.  
  65. What is pharyngitis?
    Inflamation of the pharynx, or back of the throat between the tonsils and the larynx.  Test for strep, test for usefullness of antibiotics.  
  66. What is peritonsillar abscess?
    Collection of infected materials around the tonsils.  
  67. What is temporomandibular joint disorder?
    Damage from injury, arthritis, or teeth grinding to the joint. 
Card Set:
Paramedic Test #8 - Chapters 19, 20, 21, 23, 24
2013-01-09 05:16:21
Medic Test Chapters 19 20 21 23 24

Diseases of the Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat, Abdominal, and GI Emergencies, Genitourinary and Renal Emergencies, Gynocologic Emergencies, Endocrine Emergencies
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